Titoki Alectryon excelsus, copyright Tatters.

Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Simaroubaceae, Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Acer, Dodonaea.

The Sapindales are a clade of flowering plants whose members often accumulate noxious secondary metabolites. Members include the Sapindaceae, a family of woody plants with often spiral, pinnately-compound leaves with subopposite leaflets and a terminal rhachis tip (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Aceroideae (maples) and Hippocastanoideae (horse-chestnuts) have each been treated as separate families by some authors. Aceroideae have fruit that are samaras, with seeds contained with nutlets attached to a fibrous wing. Fruits of Hippocastanoideae are capsules that dehisce into three valves. Other members of the Sapindales include Nitraria, a genus of often spiny, pubescent shrubs found in arid regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Interesting secondary compounds, ethereal oils, myricetin present; mucilage cells present; branching from previous innovation, petioles leaving a prominent scar; leaves spiral, odd-pinnately compound, leaflets opposite, vernation conduplicate; inflorescence branches, at least, cymose; twice as many anthers as sepals; tapetal cells polyploid; nectary well developed; carpels equal to and opposite petals, or 3, odd member adaxial, stigmatic head from postgenitally united free carpel tips; ovules few/carpel, epitropous, nucellar cap present; exotegmen not fibrous.

<==Sapindales [Rutineae]
    |  i. s.: Biebersteinia [Biebersteiniaceae] T00
    |         Tepuianthus [Tepuianthaceae] T00
    |         Peganaceae T00
    |           |--Malacocarpus T00
    |           |--Peganum harmala T00, C55a
    |           `--Tetradiclis T00
    |         Choerospondias axillaris WM09, D07
    |--+--+--Rutaceae MS06
    |  |  `--+--Meliaceae MS06
    |  |     `--Simaroubaceae MS06
    |  `--+--+--Anacardiaceae MS06
    |     |  `--Burseraceae MS06
    |     `--Nitraria [Nitrariaceae] WM09
    |          |--N. billardierei KM08
    |          |--N. retusa WM09
    |          `--N. schoberi B14
    `--Sapindaceae [Xanthoceraceae, Xanthocerataceae] MS06
         |  i. s.: Cardiospermum D01
         |           |--C. grandiflorum H06
         |           `--C. halicacabum LK14
         |         Serjania polyphylla D01, SWK87
         |         Diploglottis diphyllostegia W01
         |         Sapindopsis GT02
         |           |--S. alpina GT02
         |           `--S. cordata Fontaine 1889 CBH93
         |         Lepisanthes LK14
         |           |--L. fruticosa K03
         |           `--L. rubiginosa LK14
         |         Crossonephelis palawanicus H03
         |         Lepidopetalum subdichotomum B00b
         |         Nephelium K03
         |           |--N. lappaceum K03
         |           `--N. ramboutan-ake K03 [=Litsea ramboutan-ake L00]
         |         Distichostemon YY22
         |         Cupania J87
         |           |--C. americana J87
         |           |--C. anacardioides C16
         |           |--C. semiglauca [=Guioa semiglauca] MB08
         |           |--C. triquetra SWK87
         |           `--C. vernalis B04
         |         Filicium decipiens T00, SR07
         |         Tina Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1819 A-R03
         |           `--*T. thouarsiana (Camb.) Capuron 1969 [=Cupania thouarsiana] A-R03
         |         Gelonium Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) A-R03
         |           `--*G. cupanioides Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) [=Molinaea cupanioides, Tina gelonium] A-R03
         |         Molinaea laevis Willdenow 1799 A-R03
         |         Allophyllus MM96
         |           |--A. abyssinicus PB27
         |           |--A. cobbe MS06
         |           |--A. crassinervis J87
         |           |--A. edulis H11
         |           |--A. occidentalis MM96
         |           `--A. rigidus J87
         |         Harpullia MS06
         |           |--H. arborea MS06
         |           |--H. hillii B00b
         |           |--H. pendula B00b
         |           `--H. ramiflora B00b
         |         Cupaniopsis WM09
         |           |--C. anacardioides WM09
         |           |--C. dunnii [=Cupania dunnii Maiden & Betche 1908] MB08
         |           |--C. serrata MB08
         |           `--C. wadsworthii MB08
         |         Atalaya LK14
         |           |--A. hemiglauca LK14
         |           |--A. salicifolia LK14
         |           `--A. variifolia LK14
         |         Ganophyllum falcatum LK14
         |         Guioa acutifolia B00b
         |         Heterodendron B00b
         |           |--H. diversifolium B00b
         |           `--H. oleifolium BR65
         |         Litchi chinensis B00b
         |         Sarcopteryx B00b
         |           |--S. martyana B00b
         |           `--S. stipata B00b
         |         Arytera B00b
         |           |--A. divaricata B00b
         |           `--A. pauciflora B00b
         |         Paullinia pinnata C06, C55b
         |         Dipterodendron elegans H11
         |         Talisia olivaeformis F11
         |         Sapindospermum CBH93
         |         Wehrwolfea Erwin & Stockey 1990 CBH93
         |         Bohlenia CBH93
         |         Diplopeltis Endl. 1837 KC01
         |           `--D. stuartii MLP09
         |         Phaeocarpus Mart. & Zucc. 1824 KC01
         |         Schleichera oleosa M72
         |--Aceroideae [Aceraceae] T00
         |    |--Dipteronia sinensis D01
         |    |--Acer T00
         |    `--Negundoides acutifolia Lesquereux 1868 CBH93
         |--Sapindus F71 [Sapindoideae T00]
         |    |--S. drummondii DD06
         |    |--S. emarginatus S72
         |    |--S. gossei Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |    |--S. laurifolius M72
         |    `--S. mukorossi LO98
         |--Koelreuteria CD07 [Koelreuterioideae T00]
         |    |--K. annosa Brown 1956 B56
         |    |--K. elegans B00b
         |    |--K. nigricans B56
         |    `--K. paniculata Laxm. 1753 CD07
         |--Hippocastanoideae [Hippocastanaceae] T00
         |    |--Billia columbiana T00, R96
         |    `--Aesculus T00
         |         |--A. californica H93
         |         |--A. carnea D37
         |         |--A. glabra V72
         |         |--A. hippocastanum D37
         |         |--A. pavia D37
         |         `--A. turbinata LO98
         `--Dodonaeoideae [Dodonaeae] T00
              |--Dodonaea A61
              `--Alectryon Gertn. 1788 C06, A61
                   |--A. connatus LK14
                   |--A. coriaceus B00b
                   |--A. excelsus Gaertn. 1788 A61
                   |--A. grandis Cheesem. 1912 [=A. excelsus var. grandis Cheesem. 1892] A61
                   |--A. kimberleyanus LK14
                   |--A. oleifolius KM08
                   `--A. subcinereus B00a

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 8 August 2021.

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