Lamellaria sp., from Sea Slugs of Hawai'i.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Triviidae, Ovulidae, Cypraeidae, Erato.

The Cypraeoidea are a group of marine molluscs with a more or less involute shell, the older (inner) whorls being concealed by the youngest (outer). In life, the shell is mostly covered by lateral extensions of the mantle. As a result, the shells of cypraeoids are typically highly polished. In members of the subfamily Lamellariinae within the Velutinidae, the shell is entirely internal. The Velutininae have a broad-apertured shell like that of Lamellariinae but it remains external with a thick periostracum.

Characters (from Simone 2011): Shell involute. Loss of adult operculum. Mantle lobe covering most of outer surface of shell. Part of pericardium lying dorsal to gill. Auricle connecting subterminally to ctenidial vein. Duplication of horizontal muscle (m6) of odontophore.

<==Cypraeoidea (see below for synonymy) S11
    |--+--+--Triviidae S11
    |  |  `--+--Ovulidae S11
    |  |     `--Cypraeidae S11
    |  `--Eratoidae [Eratoinae, Eratooidea] S11
    |       |--Erato M03
    |       |--Johnstrupia Ravn 1933 [Johnstrupiini] BR05
    |       |    `--*J. faxensis Ravn 1933 BR17
    |       |--Eratotrivia Sacco 1894 [Eratotriviini] BR05
    |       |    `--E. crenularis Oppenheim 1901 [=Cypraea crenata Deshayes 1835 non Röding 1798, *E. crenata] BR17
    |       `--Hespererato S11
    |            |--H. maugeriae (Gray 1832) S11
    |            `--H. septentrionalis Cate 1977 BC01
    `--Velutinidae S11
         |  i. s.: Chelynotus tonganus (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) BW09
         |--Lamellariinae [Lamellaridae, Lamellariidae, Trapezodonta] BR17
         |    |--Pseudosacculus Hirase 1928 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |    `--*P. okai (Hirase 1927) [=*Sacculus okai] BR17
         |    |--Coriocella Blainville 1824 [Coriocellacea, Coriocellidae] BR05
         |    |    `--*C. nigra Blainville 1824 BR17
         |    |--Mysticoncha Allan 1936 P61
         |    |    |--*M. wilsoni [=Lamellaria wilsoni] P61
         |    |    `--M. harrisonae Powell 1946 P61
         |    `--Lamellaria Montagu 1815 BR05
         |         |  i. s.: *L. tentaculata Montagu 1815 BR17
         |         |         L. cerebroides Hutton 1883 P61
         |         |         L. conica Smith 1902 P61
         |         |         L. diegoensis Dall 1885 O27
         |         |         L. digueti (Rochebrune 1895) [=Pleurobranchus digueti] O27
         |         |         L. inflata [=Stomatella inflata] C64
         |         |         L. inopinata Cossmann 1907 TTE93
         |         |         L. koto Schwengel 1944 BC01
         |         |         L. latens N79
         |         |         L. ophione Gray 1850 P61
         |         |         L. perspicua O27
         |         |         L. stearnsii Dall 1871 O27
         |         |           |--L. s. stearnsii O27
         |         |           `--L. s. orbiculata Dall 1871 O27
         |         |         L. verrucosa Odhner 1924 F27
         |         |--L. patagonica Smith 1881 S11
         |         `--+--L. banca Simone 2004 S11
         |            `--L. mopsicolor Marcus 1956 S11
         `--Velutininae BR17
              |--Marsenia Oken 1823 BR17, BR05 [Marseniadae, Marseniidae]
              |    `--*M. haliotoidea (Montagu 1803) [=Bulla haliotoidea] BR17
              |--Capulacmaea Sars 1859 BR17, BR05 [Capulacmaeinae]
              |    `--*C. radiata (Sars 1851) [=Capulus radiatus] BR17
              |--Marseniopsis Bergh 1886 BR17, BR05 [Marseniopsidae]
              |    `--*M. pacifica Bergh 1886 BR17
              |--Marsenina Gray 1850 BR17, BR05 [Marsenininae]
              |    |--*M. prodita (Lovén 1846) [=Lamellaria prodita] BR17
              |    `--M. rhombica (Dall 1871) [=Lamellaria (Marsenina) rhombica] O27
              |--Onchidiopsis Bergh 1853 BR17, BR05 [Onchidiopsinae]
              |    |--*O. groenlandica Bergh 1853 BR17
              |    |--O. glacialis O27
              |    `--O. hannai Dall 1916 O27
              `--Velutina Fleming 1820 BR05
                   |--V. velutina (Müller 1776) [=Bulla velutina, *V. vulgaris Fleming 1820] BR17
                   |--V. conica Dall 1886 O27
                   |--V. coriacea Pallas 1788 O27
                   |--V. cryptospira Middendorff 1849 O27
                   |--V. granulata Dall 1919 O27
                   |--V. laevigata Linnaeus in Müller 1776 O27 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--V. plicatilis N79
                   |--V. prolongata Carpenter 1865 O27
                   |--V. sitkensis Adams 1851 O27
                   |--V. undata [=Galericulum undatum] J64
                   `--V. zonata Gould 1841 O27 [=Morvilia zonata C64]

Cypraeoidea [Cypraeiformes, Lamellariacea, Lamellarioidea, Ovata, Pediculariiformes, Pedicularioidea, Pedicularioidei, Velutinoidea, Velutinoidei] S11

Pseudosacculus Hirase 1928 [=Sacculus Hirase 1927 non Gosse 1851; Pseudosacculidae, Pseudosacculinae, Sacculidae] BR05

Velutina laevigata Linnaeus in Müller 1776 O27 [=Helix laevigata J64; incl. V. kamtschatkana C64, V. muelleri C64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 3 October 2021.

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