Pterygia nucea, copyright Philippe Bourjon.

Belongs within: Muricoidea.
Contains: Proximitra, Mitra.

The Mitridae, mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with a usually long and tapered shell, and a long extensible proboscis that is usually not retracted.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usually long and tapered, often delicately or strongly sculptured (sometimes smooth), with thin periostracum; columella bearing strong plaits; operculum absent. Proboscis long, extensible, may be longer than shell; radula located in end of proboscis.

<==Mitridae [Mitracea, Mitriadae, Mitriana, Mitrianae, Mitroidea]
    |--Imbricaria Schumacher 1817 [Imbricariinae, Imbricarina] BR05
    |    |--I. conica Schumacher 1817 H09
    |    |--I. conularis Lamarck 1811 WG71
    |    |--I. olivaeformis (Swainson 1821) BW09
    |    `--I. punctata (Swainson 1821) BW09
    |--Mitrinae BR05
    |    |--Mitra BW09
    |    |--Mitraria Rafinesque 1815 [Mitrariidae, Mitrariinae] BR05
    |    `--Strigatella Swainson 1840 [Strigatellacea, Strigatellidae] BR05
    |         |--S. crassa Swainson 1822 WG71
    |         |--S. flavocingulata (Lamy 1938) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    |         |--S. litterata Lamarck 1811 WG71
    |         `--S. scutulata Gmelin 1791 [incl. S. amphorella Lamarck 1811] WG71
    `--Cylindromitrinae [Cylindromitridae] BR05
         |--Cylindromitra Fischer 1884 BR05
         |--‘Cylindra’ Schumacher 1817 non Illiger 1802 [Cylindrinae] BR05
         |    `--C. crenulata (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta crenulata] H09
         `--Pterygia Röding 1798 [Pterygiinae] BR05
              |--P. barrywilsoni Cate 1968 WG71
              |--P. dactylus (Linnaeus 1767) BW09
              |--P. nucea (Gmelin 1791) BW09
              |--P. sinensis (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
              `--P. solida Reeve 1844 WG71

Mitridae incertae sedis:
  ‘Turris’ kaffraria Griesbach 1871 P66
  Neocancilla Cernohorsky 1966 WG71
    |--N. clathrus (Gmelin 1791) [incl. Mitra emersoni Pilsbry 1921] BC01
    |--N. filaris BD12
    |--N. papilio (Link 1807) BW09
    |    |--N. p. papilio BC01
    |    `--N. p. langfordiana (Cate 1962) [=Mitra langfordiana] BC01
    `--N. waikikiensis (Pilsbry 1921) [=Mitra waikikiensis] BC01
  Swainsonia Adams & Adams 1853 WG71
    `--S. casta Gmelin 1791 WG71
  Uromitra etremoides Finlay 1926 F27a
  Puruiana Martin 1931 P66
    `--*P. rustica Martin 1931 P66
  Conomitra Conrad 1865 F27a
    `--*C. fusoides [=Mitra fusoides] F27a
  Egestas Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*E. waitei (Suter 1909) [=Vexillum waitei] P61
    |--E. dissimilis Powell 1937 P61
    `--E. fenestratum (Suter 1917) [=Vexillum fenestratum] F27a
  Cancilla Swainson 1840 WG71
    |--C. filaris (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |--C. interlirata Reeve 1844 WG71
    |--C. nodostaminea Hedley 1912 WG71
    `--C. strangei Angas 1867 WG71
  Eumitra Tate 1889 WG71
    |--E. australis Swainson 1822 WG71
    |--E. badia Reeve 1845 [incl. E. rhodia Reeve 1845] WG71
    |--E. chalybeia Reeve 1844 WG71
    |--E. cookii Sowerby 1874 WG71
    |--E. glabra Swainson 1821 WG71
    `--E. nigra Gmelin 1791 [incl. E. contermina Iredale 1936, E. melaniana Lamarck 1811] WG71
  Diplomitra Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*D. nitens (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola nitens] F27a
    |--D. alokiza (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra alokiza] F27a
    |--D. calcar (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola calcar] F27a
    |--D. dictua (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra dictua] F27a
    |--D. masefieldi (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola masefieldi] F27a
    `--D. monoploca (Finlay 1927) F27a (see below for synonymy)
  Waimatea Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*W. inconspicua (Hutton 1885) [=Mitra inconspicua] F27a
    |--W. apicicostata (Suter 1917) [=Vexillum apicicostatum] F27a
    |--W. complanata (Hutton 1924) [=Mitra complanata] F27a
    |--W. dennanti [=Conomitra dennanti] F27a
    |--W. othone [=Conomitra othone] F27a
    `--W. othoniana (Finlay 1924) [=Conomitra othoniana] F27a
  Proximitra F27a
  Balcomitra Finlay 1927 F27b
    |--*B. paucicostata [=Mitra paucicostata] F27b
    |--B. leptalea [=Costellaria leptalea] F27b
    `--B. macra Finlay 1927 [=Mitra exilis Tate 1889 non Reeve 1845, Costellaria exilis] F27b
  ‘Voluta’ ziervoyelii Gmelin 1791 [incl. Cancellaria ziervogeliana Lamarck 1822] PH90
  Ziba interlirata (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
  Subcancilla BC01
    |--S. attenuata (Broderip 1836) W77
    |--S. edithrexae Sphon 1976 BC01
    |--S. erythrogramma (Tomlin 1931) W77
    |--S. musa (Olsson 1964) [=Mitra (Subcancilla) musa] C75
    |--S. phorminx (Berry 1969) W77
    |--S. sphoni (Shasky & Campbell 1964) [=Strigatella sphoni] W77
    `--S. welkerorum Whitney 1977 W77
  Vicimitra Iredale 1929 P61
    |--*V. prosphora P61
    `--V. maoria Finlay 1927 P61

Nomen nudum: Waimatea opima Allan 1927 A27

Diplomitra monoploca (Finlay 1927) F27a [=Mitra monoploca F27b, M. uniplica Tate 1889 non M. ebenus var. uniplicatus Wood 1872 F27b]

Strigatella flavocingulata (Lamy 1938) [=Mitra (Strigatella) flavocingulata; incl. S. rapanuiensis Cate 1968] BC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C75] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1975. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 3. With descriptions of new taxa and remarks on an Ecuadorian fossil species of Turridae. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 12: 213–234.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus Supplement 1: 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[W77] Whitney, R. A. 1977. A new species of Subcancilla (Gastropoda: Mitridae) from the Gulf of California. Veliger 20 (1): 52–53.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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