Pterygia nucea, copyright Philippe Bourjon.

Belongs within: Mitroidea.
Contains: Proximitra, Imbricariinae, Mitra.

The Mitridae, mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with a usually long and tapered shell, and a long extensible proboscis that is usually not retracted. As far as is known, all species are exclusive predators of sipunculan worms (Fedosov et al. 2015).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usually long and tapered, often delicately or strongly sculptured (sometimes smooth), with thin periostracum; columella bearing strong plaits; operculum absent. Proboscis long, extensible, may be longer than shell; radula located in end of proboscis.

Mitridae [Mitracea, Mitriadae, Mitriana, Mitrianae]
    |--‘Mitra’ tuberosa Reeve 1845 FP15
    `--+--‘Mitra’ bernhardina Röding 1798 FP15
       `--+--‘Mitra’ peculiaris Reeve 1845 FP15
          `--+--Imbricariinae FP15
             `--+--+--‘Mitra’ glabra Swainson 1821 FP15
                |  `--+--‘Mitra’ incompta (Lightfoot 1786) FP15
                |     `--Cylindromitrinae [Cylindrinae, Cylindromitridae] BR05
                |          |--Cylindromitra Fischer 1884 [=Cylindra Schumacher 1817 non Illiger 1802] BR05
                |          |    |--*C. coronata (Schumacher 1817) [=*Cylindra coronata] BR17
                |          |    `--‘Voluta’ crenulata Gmelin 1791 [=Cylindra crenulata] H09
                |          `--Pterygia Röding 1798 FP15, BR05 [Pterygiinae]
                |               |--*P. dactylus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Voluta dactylus; incl. P. nucella Röding 1798] BR17
                |               |--P. barrywilsoni Cate 1968 WG71
                |               |--P. nucea (Gmelin 1791) BW09
                |               |--P. sinensis (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
                |               `--P. solida Reeve 1844 WG71
                `--+--Strigatella Swainson 1840 FP15, BR05 [Strigatellacea, Strigatellidae, Strigatellinae BR17]
                   |    |--*S. zebra (Lamarck 1811) [=Mitra zebra] BR17
                   |    |--S. crassa Swainson 1822 WG71
                   |    |--S. flavocingulata (Lamy 1938) (see below for synonymy) BC01
                   |    |--S. litterata (Lamarck 1811) WG71
                   |    |--S. paupercula (Linnaeus 1758) FP15
                   |    |--S. scutulata Gmelin 1791 [incl. S. amphorella Lamarck 1811] WG71
                   |    `--S. tristis C64
                   `--+--Nebularia FP15
                      |    |  i. s.: N. chryzalis (Reeve 1844) FP15
                      |    |         N. cucumerina (Lamarck 1811) FP15
                      |    |         N. fraga (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) FP15
                      |    |--N. maesta FP15
                      |    `--+--N. connectens FP15
                      |       `--N. pediculus FP15
                      |--Mitra FP15
                      |--Ziba FP15
                      |    |  i. s.: Z. interlirata (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
                      |    |--*Z. carinata (Swainson 1824) FP15
                      |    `--+--‘Mitra’ christinae FP15
                      |       `--+--Z. abyssicola FP15
                      |          `--‘Mitra’ rosacea FP15
                      `--+--‘Mitra’ sophia FP15
                         `--Domiporta FP15
                              |--D. granatina FP15
                              `--+--*D. filiaris FP15
                                 `--D. praestantissima FP15

Mitridae incertae sedis:
  ‘Turris’ kaffraria Griesbach 1871 P66
  Uromitra etremoides Finlay 1926 F27a
  Puruiana Martin 1931 P66
    `--*P. rustica Martin 1931 P66
  Egestas Finlay 1927 P61
    |--*E. waitei (Suter 1909) [=Vexillum waitei] P61
    |--E. dissimilis Powell 1937 P61
    `--E. fenestratum (Suter 1917) [=Vexillum fenestratum] F27a
  Eumitra Tate 1889 WG71
    |--E. australis Swainson 1822 WG71
    |--E. badia Reeve 1845 [incl. E. rhodia Reeve 1845] WG71
    |--E. chalybeia Reeve 1844 WG71
    |--E. cookii Sowerby 1874 WG71
    |--E. glabra Swainson 1821 WG71
    `--E. nigra Gmelin 1791 [incl. E. contermina Iredale 1936, E. melaniana Lamarck 1811] WG71
  Diplomitra Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*D. nitens (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola nitens] F27a
    |--D. alokiza (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra alokiza] F27a
    |--D. calcar (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola calcar] F27a
    |--D. dictua (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra dictua] F27a
    |--D. masefieldi (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola masefieldi] F27a
    `--D. monoploca (Finlay 1927) F27a (see below for synonymy)
  Waimatea Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*W. inconspicua (Hutton 1885) [=Mitra inconspicua] F27a
    |--W. apicicostata (Suter 1917) [=Vexillum apicicostatum] F27a
    |--W. complanata [=Mitra complanata] F27a
    |--W. dennanti [=Conomitra dennanti] F27a
    |--W. othone [=Conomitra othone] F27a
    `--W. othoniana (Finlay 1924) [=Conomitra othoniana] F27a
  Proximitra P61
  Balcomitra Finlay 1927 F27b
    |--*B. paucicostata [=Mitra paucicostata] F27b
    |--B. leptalea [=Costellaria leptalea] F27b
    `--B. macra Finlay 1927 [=Mitra exilis Tate 1889 non Reeve 1845, Costellaria exilis] F27b
  ‘Voluta’ ziervoyelii Gmelin 1791 [incl. Cancellaria ziervogeliana Lamarck 1822] PH90
  Vicimitra Iredale 1929 P61
    |--*V. prosphora P61
    `--V. maoria Finlay 1927 P61
  Isara Adams & Adams 1853 [Isarinae] BR17
    `--*I. bulimoides (Reeve 1845) [=Mitra bulimoides] BR17
  Pleioptygma Conrad 1863 Q89 [Pleioptygmatidae, Pleioptygmatinae BR17]
    |--*P. carolinense (Conrad 1840) [=Voluta carolinensis, Mitra carolinensis] Q89
    |--P. helenae (Radwin & Bibbey 1972) Q89
    |--P. lineolatum (Heilprin 1887) Q89
    |    |--P. l. lineolatum Q89
    |    `--P. l. saginatum (Tucker & Wilson 1933) Q89
    `--P. prodroma (Gardner 1937) Q89

Nomen nudum: Waimatea opima Allan 1927 A27

Diplomitra monoploca (Finlay 1927) F27a [=Mitra monoploca F27a, M. uniplica Tate 1889 non M. ebenus var. uniplicatus Wood 1872 F27b]

Strigatella flavocingulata (Lamy 1938) [=Mitra (Strigatella) flavocingulata; incl. S. rapanuiensis Cate 1968] BC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[Q89] Quinn, J. F., Jr. 1989. Pleioptygmatidae, a new family of mitriform gastropods (Prosobranchia: Neogastropoda). Nautilus 103 (1): 13-19.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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