Reconstruction of Birgeria, copyright DiBgd.

Belongs within: Actinopterygii.
Contains: Neopterygii, Palaeonisciformes, Acipenseriformes.

The Actinopteri are a clade of fishes including all modern ray-finned fishes with the exception of the bichirs of the Polypteridae. Members of this clade have the premaxilla confined to a region anterior to the orbit, parasphenoid teeth absent, and proximal radials of the dorsal fin substantially enlarged relative to the middle radials (Giles et al. 2017).

<==Actinopteri XG11
    |--+--Neopterygii XG11
    |  `--+--Palaeonisciformes GX17
    |     `--Acipenserifomes GX17
    `--+--Brachydegma [Brachydegmidae] GX17
       |    `--B. caelatum Dunkle 1939 G93
       `--Birgeriidae G93
            |--Psilichthys selwyni Hall 1900 G93
            `--Birgeria Stensiö 1919 GX17, G93
                 `--B. groenlandica GX17

Actinopteri incertae sedis:
  Willomorichthyidae [Rhabdolepididae] G93
    |--Willomorichthys striatulus Gardiner 1969 G93
    |--Rhabdolepis macropterus (Bronn 1829) G93
    |--Tienshaniscus longipterus Lui & Wang 1978 G93
    |--Sinoniscus macrolepis Lui & Wang 1978 G93
    `--Bendenius Traquair 1878 G93
         `--B. deneensis (Traquair 1878) G93
  Phanerorhynchus [Phanerorhynchidae, Phanerorhynchiformes] G93
    `--P. armatus Gill 1923 G93
  Holuridae G93
    |--Holurus parki Traquair 1881 G93
    |--Australichthys longidorsalis Gardiner 1969 G93
    |--Holuropsis yavorskyi Berg 1947 G93
    `--Palaeonisconotus G93
  Atherstoniidae G93
    |--Aestuarichthys fulcratus Gardiner 1969 G93
    `--Atherstonia Woodward 1889 G93
         `--A. australis Woodward 1902 F71
  Dwykia [Dwykiidae] G93
    `--D. analensis Gardiner 1969 G93
  Phanerosteon [Carbovelidae] G93
    `--P. mirabile Traquair 1881 G93
  Strepheoschemidae G93
    |--Strepheoschema fouldenensis White 1927 G93
    `--Aetheretmon valentiacum White 1927 G93
  Cornuboniscus [Cornuboniscidae] G93
    `--C. budensis White 1939 G93
  Amblypteridae G93
    |--Paramblypterus decorus (Egerton 1850) G93
    |--Amblypterus Agassiz 1833 G93
    |--Amblypterina Berg 1940 G93
    |--Gardinerichthys tewarii Gupta et al. 1978 G93
    `--Korutichthys korutensis Kazantseva 1980 G93
  Haplolepididae G93
    |--Haplolepis Miller 1892 G93
    `--Pyritocephalus sculptus Fric 1894 G93
  Tarrasius [Tarrasiidae, Tarrasiiformes] G93
    `--T. problematicus Traquair 1881 G93
  Aeduelliidae G93
    |--Aeduella blainvillei (Agassiz 1833) G93
    |--Westollia crassus (Pholig 1892) G93
    |--Igornella Heyler 1969 G93
    |--Decazella Heyler 1969 G93
    |--Burbonella Heyler 1969 G93
    `--Palaeothrissum Blainville 1818 G93
  Cryphiolepis [Cryphiolepididae] G93
    `--C. striatus (Traquair 1881) G93
  Urosthenes [Urosthenidae] G93
    |--U. australis Dana 1848 G93
    `--U. latus Woodward 1931 G93
  Lawnia [Lawniidae] G93
    `--L. taylorensis Wilson 1953 G93
  Trissolepididae G93
    |--Sceletophorus biserialis Frič 1894 G93
    `--Sphaerolepis kounoviensis Frič 1877 G93
  Commentrya [Commentryidae] G93
    `--C. traquairi Sauvage 1888 G93
  Dorypterus [Dorypteridae, Dorypteriformes, Dorypteroidei] G93
    |--D. althausi (Münster 1842) G93
    `--D. hoffmanni Germar 1842 G93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G93] Gardiner, B. G. 1993. Osteichthyes: basal actinopterygians. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 611–619. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GX17] Giles, S., G.-H. Xu, T. J. Near & M. Friedman. 2017. Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes. Nature 549: 265–268.

[XG11] Xu, G.-H. & K.-Q. Gao. 2011. A new scanilepiform from the Lower Triassic of northern Gansu Province, China, and phylogenetic relationships of non-teleostean Actinopterygii. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 595–612.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS