Common woodruff Asperula conferta, from here.

Belongs within: Rubioideae.
Contains: Galium.

The Paederieae are a group of often foetid-smelling herbs and shrubs. Molecular analysis suggests that this group is paraphyletic with regard to Theligonum and the Rubieae, generally classified as separate tribes (Bremer & Manen 2000). Theligonum is a genus of somewhat succulent, wind-pollinated herbs found on the Macaronesian islands and in the Mediterranean regions and eastern Asia.

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000, for Paederieae excluding Theligonum and Rubieae): Shrubs, climbers, dwarf shrubs and herbs, many with a foetid smell. Stipules divided or entire. Flowers often heterostylous, Stamens inserted in upper part of corolla, Ovary 2-5-locular, with a single erect ovule in each locule. Fruits dry, dehishent into mericarps or opening with operculum, or fleshy, indehiscent. Chromosome basic number x = 11 (rarely 10, 12, 13) with 2-, 4-, 6- or 8-ploidy levels. Pollen 3-colpate.

<==Paederieae [Putorieae]
    |  i. s.: Gaillonia yemenensis BM00
    |         Spermadictyon suaveolens BM00
    |         Chouletia BM00
    |         Jaubertia BM00
    |         Leptodermis BM00
    |         Pseudogaillonia BM00
    |         Pseudopyxis BM00
    |         Pterogaillonia BM00
    |         Paederia foetida BM00
    |--Serissa fetida BM00
    `--+--+--Plocama pendula BM00
       |  `--Putoria calabrica (Linnaeus) de Candolle 1830 BM00, PL04
       `--+--Theligonum [Theligoneae] BM00
          |    `--T. cynocrambe BM00
          `--Rubieae [Asperuleae, Galieae] BM00
               |--Didymaea alsinoides BM00
               |--Galium BM00
               |--Relbunium hypocarpium BM00
               |--Cruciata glabra BM00
               |--Phuopsis stylosa BM00
               |--Sherardia arvensis Linnaeus 1753 BM00, PL04
               |--Callipeltis cucullaria BM00, C55
               |--Mericarpaea BM00
               |--Crucianella BM00
               |    |--C. angustifolia H93
               |    `--C. latifolia PT98
               |--Valantia BM00
               |    |--V. hispida PT98
               |    `--V. muralis Linnaeus 1753 PL04
               |--Rubia BM00
               |    |--R. fruticosa SK02
               |    |--R. manjith D07
               |    `--R. tinctorum BM00
               `--Asperula BM00
                    |  i. s.: A. arvensis H91
                    |         A. cynanchica H91
                    |         A. hirta Ramond 1800 R00
                    |         A. laevigata BM00
                    |         A. ophiolithica Ehrend. 1975 PL04
                    |         A. orientalis PT01
                    |         A. taurina C55
                    `--A. sect. Dioicae BR65
                         |--A. conferta BR65
                         |--A. euryphylla BR65
                         |    |--A. e. var. euryphylla BR65
                         |    `--A. e. var. tetraphylla [incl. A. gunnii Bentham 1866 non Hooker 1847] BR65
                         |--A. gemella Airy-Shaw & Turrill 1928 BR65
                         |--A. geminifolia [=Galium geminifolium Mueller 1855] BR65
                         `--A. scoparia Hooker 1847 [incl. A. oligantha Mueller 1859] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[R00] Ramond, C. 1800. Plantes inédites des Hautes-Pyrénées. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (41): 129–133.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Last updated: 12 January 2020.

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