New Zealand spinach Tetragonia tetragonioides, copyright Harry Rose.

Belongs within: Phytolaccineae.
Contains: Mesembryanthemoideae.

The Aizoaceae, ice daisies, are a group of primarily subtropical, often more or less succulent plants with radial, daisy-like flowers.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, or shrub, generally fleshy. Stem underground or prostrate to erect. Leaves generally simple, generally cauline, generally opposite; stipule generally absent; blade generally glabrous, often glaucous. Infloresnce a cyme or flower solitary. Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium present; sepals 3–8; petals generally many in several whorls, free or fused at base, linear, sometimes absent; stamens 1–many, free or fused in groups, outer often petal-like; nectary a ring or separate glands; pistil 1, ovary superior to inferior, chambers 1–20, placentas generally parietal, styles 0–20, stigmas 1–20. Fruit generally a capsule, opening by flaps or circumscissile, or berry or nut. Seeds 1–many per chamber, often with aril.

<==Aizoaceae [Ficoidaceae, Ficoideae]
    |  i. s.: Dorotheanthus bellidiformis KRH03, PT01
    |         Cleretum KRH03
    |         Glischrothamnus KRH03
    |         Aizoanthemum CV06
    |           |--A. dinteri CV06
    |           |--A. galenioides CV06
    |           `--A. rehmannii [incl. A. membrumconnectens] CV06
    |         Papularia Forssk. 1775 KC01
    |--Sesuvioideae KRH03
    |    |--Sesuvium verrucosum H93
    |    |--Zaleya galericulata M99 [=Trianthema galericulata H90]
    |    |    |--Z. g. ssp. galericulata h90
    |    |    `--Z. g. ssp. australis [=Trianthema australis] H90
    |    `--Trianthema M99
    |         |--T. crystallina VB02
    |         |--T. hereroensis CV06
    |         |--T. patellitecta LK14
    |         |--T. pilosa LK14
    |         |--T. portulacastrum [=Sesuvium portulacastrum] H93
    |         |--T. rhynchoalyptra LK14
    |         |--T. triquetra [incl. T. triquetra var. clavata] H90
    |         `--T. turgidifolia LYG03
    `--+--+--Mesembryanthemoideae KRH03
       |  `--Gibbaeum [Hymenogynoideae] KRH03
       |       `--G. haaglenii KRH03
       `--+--Aizooideae KRH03
          |    |--Cypselea humifusa H93
          |    |--Aizoon CV06
          |    |    |--A. giessii CV06
          |    |    `--A. glinoides F92
          |    `--Gunniopsis H90
          |         |--G. papillata H90
          |         |--G. quadrifida [=Aizoon quadrifidum] H90
          |         `--G. septifraga [=Gunnia septifraga, Neogunnia septifraga; incl. N. drummondii] H90
          `--Tetragonioideae KRH03
               |--Tribulocarpus T00
               `--Tetragonia Linnaeus 1753 A61
                    |--T. diptera KM08
                    |--T. eremaea H90
                    |--T. implexicoma G60
                    |--T. microptera H90
                    |--T. nigrescens H90
                    |--T. rangeana CV06
                    |--T. schenckii CV06
                    |--T. tetragonioides (Pallas) Kuntze 1891 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    `--T. trigyna Banks & Sol. ex Hook. f. 1864 [incl. T. implexicoma var. chathamica Muell. 1864] A61

Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pallas) Kuntze 1891 [=Demidovia tetragonioides Pallas 1781; incl. T. cornuta Gaertn. 1791, T. expansa Murr. 1783, T. halimifolia Forst. f. 1786, T. inermis Muell. 1853] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KRH03] Klak, C., G. Reeves & T. Hedderson. 2003. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427: 63–65.

[LYG03] Lambkin, C. L., D. K. Yeates & D. J. Greathead. 2003. An evolutionary radiation of beeflies in semi-arid Australia: systematics of the Exoprosopini (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 735–891.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.


  1. What happened to the Ruschioideae?

    1. Subsumed in the Mesembryanthemoideae in the listing I've currently got, which I don't yet have a page for.

  2. Ah, I see. Thanks.

    Hope you are well and busy.


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