Castanopsis

Japanese chinquapin Castanopsis cuspidata, copyright Kenpei.


Belongs within: Fagaceae.

Castanopsis, the chinquapins, is a genus of trees found in tropical and subtropical eastern Asia.

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees evergreen. Winter buds ovoid to ellipsoid, with decussate scales. Stipules extrapetiolar. Leaves alternate, distichous, or for a few species spirally arranged. Inflorescences usually unisexual, erect, spicate or paniculate. Male flowers in fascicles of 3-7, rarely solitary and scattered; perianth 5- or 6(-8)-lobed; stamens (8 or)9-12; rudimentary pistil very small, densely covered with curved woolly hairs. Female flowers solitary or in clusters of 3-5(-7) per cupule; staminodes when present opposite perianth lobes; ovary 3-loculed; styles (2 or)3(or 4); stigmas punctiform or shallow terminal pores. Cupules solitary on rachis, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, rarely indehiscent, completely or partially enclosing nut; bracts sparsely to densely covering outside of cupule, spinelike or rarely scalelike or tubercles (cupule measurement always includes bracts). Nuts 1-3 per cupule, maturing after 2nd year or rarely in 1st year; abortive ovule apical. Germination hypogeal; cotyledons slightly convex, rarely cerebriform rugose.

<==Castanopsis
    |--C. acuminatissima C78
    |--C. benthami Ettingshausen 1883 F71
    |--C. cuspidata [=Quercus cuspidata] LO98
    |    |--C. c. var. cuspidata LO98
    |    `--C. c. var. sieboldii LO98
    |--C. densinervia H03
    |--C. endertii H03
    |--C. indica D07
    |--C. lancifolia D07
    |--C. sempervirens Z83
    `--C. tribuloides D07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[Z83] Zink, R. M. 1983. Evolutionary and systematic significance of temporal variation in the fox sparrow. Systematic Zoology 32 (3): 223-238.

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