Fissidens adianthoides, photographed by Kristian Peters.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.

Fissidentaceae is a family of mosses distinguished by the arrangement of the leaves, in two rows on opposite sides of the stem and overlapping at the base. Members of the genus Nanobryum were previously classified into a separate family, but are now regarded as reduced relatives of Fissidens. Octodiceras julianum is an aquatic species with floating stems found in Europe (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Pursell 2007): Plants tiny to robust. Stem, except for initial stages, growing from a 2-sided apical cell. Leaves distichous, equitant, complex in form, consisting of two vaginant laminae that clasp the stem, a ventral lamina located above the vaginant laminae, and a dorsal lamina that occupies the length of the leaf opposite the vaginant and ventral laminae; costa single, usually well developed, near center of leaf, sometimes reduced, absent or nearly so. Seta elongate. Capsule cylindric, peristome single, teeth 16, haplolepidous, endostomate, usually divided ½–⅔ their length, sometimes irregularly divided or undivided, sometimes reduced, rarely absent. Calyptra cucullate.

    |--Moenkemeyera Müll.Hal. 1886 SK02
    |--Octodiceras julianum [=Fontinalis juliana, Conomitrium julianum] D24
    |--Nanobryum Dixon 1922 [Nanobryaceae] SK02
    |    `--N. thorsbornei Stone 1982 [=Fissidens thorsbornei (Stone) Brugg.-Nann. & Berendsen 1988] SK02
    `--Fissidens Hedw. 1801 SK02
         |--F. adianthoides Hedw. 1801 SK02 [=Hypnum adiantoides D24; incl. F. collinus D24, F. major SK02]
         |--F. aeruginosus [incl. F. linearis var. angustifolium] SK02
         |--F. algarvicus D24
         |--F. ampliretis (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1901 [=Conomitrium amplirete] SK02
         |--F. anisophyllus SK02
         |--F. arcuatus SK02
         |--F. asplenioides Hedw. 1801 [incl. F. ligulatus, Conomitrium ligulatum] SK02
         |--F. autoicus Thér. & Broth. 1916 [incl. F. cairnensis Broth. & Watts 1918] SK02
         |--F. badyinbarus Stone & Catches. 1993 SK02
         |--F. becketii Mitt. 1873 [incl. F. calodictyon Broth. 1891] SK02
         |--F. berteri (Montagne) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. biformis Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--F. bifrons Schimp. ex Müll.Hal. 1859 [incl. F. bryoidioides Broth. 1916] SK02
         |--F. bogoriensis Fleischer 1904 [incl. F. altisetus Dixon 1930] SK02
         |--F. borgenii Hampe 1870 SK02
         |--F. brassii Bartram 1943 SK02
         |    |--F. b. var. brassii SK02
         |    `--F. b. var. hebetatus (Catches.) Stone 1994 [=F. hebetatus Catches. 1980] SK02
         |--F. bryoides Hedw. 1801 SK02 [=Hypnum bryoides D24]
         |    |--F. b. var. bryoides SK02
         |    |--F. b. var. caespitans [incl. F. curnovii] SK02
         |    |--F. b. var. intermedius D24
         |    `--F. b. var. schmidii (Müll.Hal.) Chopra & Kumar 1981 SK02
         |--F. cambewarrae Dixon 1942 SK02
         |--F. ceylonensis Dozy & Molk. 1844 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. consociatus Thér. 1910 SK02
         |--F. crassinervis Sande Lac. 1872 SK02
         |--F. crassipes Wilson ex Bruch & Schimp. 1849 SK02
         |--F. crenulatus Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--F. crispulus Brid. 1819 [incl. F. kerianus Broth. 1895, F. zippelianus Dozy & Molk. 1854] SK02
         |--F. cristatus J87
         |--F. cucullatus Stone 1989 [incl. F. obtusoacuminatus Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.)] SK02
         |--F. curvatus Hornsch. 1841 SK02
         |    |--F. c. var. curvatus (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--F. c. var. inclinabilis (Müll.Hal. ex Dixon) Beever 1995 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. cuspidiferus Dixon 1930 SK02
         |--F. darwinianus Catches. & Stone 1988 SK02
         |--F. dealbatus Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
         |--F. decipiens D24
         |--F. delicatulus Ångström 1872 SK02
         |--F. dietrichiae Müll.Hal. 1872 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. diversifolius Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--F. dubius FHH01
         |--F. exilis SK02 [incl. F. bloxami D24]
         |--F. exsul Dixon 1910 D24
         |--F. filicinus B57
         |--F. flabellulus Thwaites & Mitt. 1873 SK02
         |    |--F. f. var. flabellulus SK02
         |    `--F. f. var. eachamensis Stone 1994 SK02
         |--F. flaccidus Mitt. 1860 [incl. F. maceratus Mitt. 1882] SK02
         |--F. fontanus (Bach.Pyl.) Steud. 1824 SK02 [=F. viridulus var. fontanus D24]
         |--F. forsythii Broth. 1916 SK02
         |--F. gardneri Mitt. 1869 [incl. F. microcladus Thwaites & Mitt. 1873] SK02
         |--F. glaucescens Hornsch. 1841 [incl. F. involvens, F. ovatus] SK02
         |--F. gracilifolius M08
         |--F. gymnocarpus Stone 1983 SK02
         |--F. henryae Stone 1984 [incl. Moenkemeyera australiensis Dixon 1942] SK02
         |--F. hollianus Dozy & Molk. 1855 SK02
         |--F. holstii Broth. 1894 [incl. F. kurandae Broth. & Watts 1918, F. subkurandae Bartram 1952] SK02
         |--F. homomallulus Müll.Hal. ex Dixon 1950 SK02
         |--F. hyalinus Hooker & Wilson 1840 [incl. F. nymanii Fleischer 1904] SK02
         |--F. inaequiretis Stone 1989 SK02
         |--F. incurvus Starke ex Röhl. 1813 SK02
         |--F. integerrimus Mitt. 1859 [incl. F. hunteri Willis 1951, F. tasmanicus] SK02
         |--F. involutus Wilson ex Mitt. 1859 SG07
         |--F. leptocladus Müll.Hal. ex Rodway 1913 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. linearis Brid. 1819 SK02
         |    |--F. l. var. linearis (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--F. l. var. obscurirete (Broth.) Stone 1991 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. mangarevensis B57
         |--F. megalotis Schimp. ex Müll.Hal. 1858 [incl. F. vittatus Hooker & Wilson 1859] SK02
         |--F. oblatus Stone & Catches. 1993 SK02
         |--F. oblongifolius Hooker & Wilson 1844 SK02
         |    |--F. o. var. oblongifolius [incl. F. woollsianus Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.)] SK02
         |    |--F. o. var. hyophilus (Mitt.) Beever & Stone 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |--F. o. var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Brugg.-Nann., Pursell & Iwats. 1994 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--F. o. var. palmerstonensis (Stone) Beever & Stone 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. orrii [incl. F. tequendamensis] D24
         |--F. osmundoides [=Dicranum osmundoides] D24
         |--F. pacificus SK02
         |--F. pallidus Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
         |    |--F. p. var. pallidus (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--F. p. var. caniensis Stone 1994 SK02
         |--F. patulifolius Dixon 1942 SK02
         |--F. pauperrimus SK02
         |--F. pellucidus Hornsch. 1841 [incl. F. laxus Sull. & Lesq. 1859] SK02
         |--F. perangustus Broth. 1916 SK02
         |--F. perobtusus Dixon 1930 [incl. F. traversii Stone 1983] SK02
         |--F. polyphyllus D24
         |--F. polypodioides J87
         |--F. pseudopallidus Stone 1987 SK02
         |--F. punctulatus Sande Lac. 1872 SK02
         |--F. pusillus D24
         |    |--F. p. var. pusillus D24
         |    `--F. p. var. madidus [incl. F. minutulus] D24
         |--F. pygmaeus Hornsch. 1841 SK02
         |--F. repanda J87
         |--F. rigidulus Hooker & Wilson 1854 [incl. F. macrostachys (nom. inv.), F. tortuosus Geh. & Hampe 1881] SK02
         |--F. rivularis D24
         |--F. robinsonii Broth. 1918 DD05
         |--F. rufulus D24
         |--F. rupicola Paris & Broth. 1906 SK02
         |--F. scalaris SK02
         |--F. semiliretis J87
         |--F. serratus Müll.Hal. 1847 SK02
         |--F. serrulatus D24
         |--F. splachnifolius Hornsch. 1841 SK02
         |--F. splachnobryoides Broth. in Schum & Lanterb. 1900 B05
         |--F. splachnoides Broth. 1893 [=Conomitrium splachnoides] SK02
         |--F. strictus Hooker & Wilson 1859 SK02
         |--F. subpalmatus Muell. 1872 B05
         |--F. sufflatus Stone 1987 SK02
         |--F. sylvaticus Griff. 1842 (see below for synonymy) B05
         |--F. taxifolius [=Hypnum taxifolium] D24
         |--F. taylorii Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. F. sublimbatus Broth. 1902 (n. n.)] SK02
         |    |--F. t. var. taylorii (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |--F. t. var. epiphytus (Allison) Stone & Beever 1996 [=F. epiphytus Allison 1960] SK02
         |    |--F. t. var. floribundus (Wilson) Wijk & Margad. 1959 (n. d.) [=F. brevifolius var. floribundus] SK02
         |    |--F. t. var. gillianus (Catches. & Stone) Stone 1996 [=F. gillianus Catches. & Stone 1988] SK02
         |    `--F. t. var. sainsburianus Allison 1960 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. tenellus Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
         |    |--F. t. var. tenellus (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--F. t. var. australiensis (Jaeger) Beever & Stone 1999 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--F. terrae-reginae Bartram 1952 SK02
         |--F. victorialis Mitt. 1882 SK02
         |--F. viridulus [=Dicranum viridulum; incl. F. tamarindifolius] D24
         |    |--F. v. var. viridulus D24
         |    `--F. v. var. lylei [=F. pusillus var. lylei] D24
         |--F. vitiensis B57
         |--F. wattsii Broth. 1915 SK02
         `--F. zollingeri Montagne 1845 SK02

Nomina nuda: Conomitrium equitans Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens equitans Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Conomitrium luehmannianum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens luehmannianus Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Conomitrium novae-hollandiae Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens novae-hollandiae Hornsch. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Conomitrium porosum Hampe 1901 [=Fissidens porosus Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Conomitrium semirufum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens semirufus Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Conomitrium trachyphyllum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens trachyphyllus Watts & Whitelegge 1902] SK02
             Fissidens alternifolius Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Fissidens applanatus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens archeri Mitt. 1882 SK02
             Fissidens assimilis Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens chloroloma Broth. ex Burges 1932 SK02
             Fissidens commutatus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens cuspidicalyx Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens grandiretis Broth. ex Bailey 1890 SK02
             Fissidens leptoloma Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens leptopelma Müll.Hal. 1880 SK02
             Fissidens leuconeurus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens liliputanobryoides Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens liliputanoincurvus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens microblastus Broth. ex Watts 1900 [=F. montecolli Watts ex Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Fissidens microlecythis Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens dietrichiae f. minor Broth. ex Watts 1901 SK02
             Fissidens novae-valesiae Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Fissidens pulvinatulus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens serratomarginatus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens subapplanatus Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Fissidens pallidus f. virides Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Fissidens walteri Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Fissidens whiteleggeanus Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02

Fissidens berteri (Montagne) Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. Conomitrium dillenii, F. dillenii; incl. C. muelleri, F. muelleri, Octodiceras muelleri] SK02

Fissidens ceylonensis Dozy & Molk. 1844 [incl. F. intromarginatulus Bartram 1954, F. subhumilis Catches. 1980] SK02

Fissidens curvatus Hornsch. 1841 var. curvatus [incl. F. aristatus Broth. 1916, F. bartramiocarpus (n. n.), F. incurvobryoides (nom. inv.), F. pungens Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853, F. sordidevirens Broth. 1916, F. strictulus Müll.Hal. 1898, F. warningensis Broth. ex Burges 1932 (n. n.), F. wildii Broth. 1891] SK02

Fissidens curvatus var. inclinabilis (Müll.Hal. ex Dixon) Beever 1995 [incl. F. semilimbatus Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853] SK02

Fissidens dietrichiae Müll.Hal. 1872 [incl. F. densifolius Broth. 1891 (n. n.), F. praemollis, F. sydneyensis (n. n.), F. undatodecurrens (n. n.), F. undulatodecurrens (l. c.)] SK02

Fissidens leptocladus Müll.Hal. ex Rodway 1913 [=F. rigidiusculus var. leptocladus (nom. illeg.); incl. F. amblyothalloides Broth. & Watts 1915, F. leptocladus var. cheesemanii Dixon 1923, F. pachyneuron Dixon 1950, F. rigidiusculus (preoc.)] SK02

Fissidens linearis Brid. 1819 var. linearis [incl. F. aeruginosus var. allisonii (Dixon & Sainsbury) Stone 1994, F. arcuatulus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. aeruginosus var. arcuatulus (Broth. & Watts) Stone 1990 (nom. illeg.), Conomitrium coarctatum (n. n.), F. coarctatus (n. n.), F. humilis Dixon & Watts 1916] SK02

Fissidens linearis var. obscurirete (Broth.) Stone 1991 [=F. aeruginosus var. obscurirete (Broth. & Paris) Stone 1990; incl. F. microhumilis Dixon 1942] SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. hyophilus (Mitt.) Beever & Stone 1998 [=F. hyophilus Mitt. 1882; incl. F. arboreus Broth. 1891] SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Brugg.-Nann., Pursell & Iwats. 1994 [=F. longiligulatus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. hyophilus var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Stone 1990] SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. palmerstonensis (Stone) Beever & Stone 1998 [=F. hyophilus var. palmerstonensis Stone 1994] SK02

Fissidens pallidus Hooker & Wilson 1854 var. pallidus [incl. F. howeanus Broth. ex Whitel. 1893 (n. n.), F. punctatus (n. n.), F. whiteleggii] SK02

Fissidens sylvaticus Griff. 1842 [incl. F. teraicola Muell. 1872, F. sylvaticus var. teraicola (Muell.) Gangulee 1971] B05

Fissidens taylorii var. sainsburianus Allison 1960 [incl. F. brevifolius Hooker & Wilson 1854, F. elamellosus Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1856, F. clamellosus (l. c.), F. macrodus Hampe 1860, Sainsburia novae-zelandiae] SK02

Fissidens taylorii Müll.Hal. 1848 var. taylorii [incl. F. basilaris Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1853, F. nanopyxis Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), F. sarcophyllus Burchard & Broth. 1896 (n. n.), F. sullivanii Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), F. weymouthii Paris 1900 (n. n.)] SK02

Fissidens tenellus var. australiensis (Jaeger) Beever & Stone 1999 [=F. australiensis Jaeger 1869; incl. Conomitrium perpusillum, F. perpusillus] SK02

Fissidens tenellus Hooker & Wilson 1854 var. tenellus [incl. F. subtenellus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. tenelliformis Broth. & Watts 1915] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 11–42.

[DD05] Daniels, A. E. D., & P. Daniels. 2005. Additions to the moss flora of the Indian mainland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 93–100.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

Pursell, R. A. 2007. Fissidentaceae Schimper. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds) Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 27, pp. 331-343. New York and Oxford.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 155–164.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 18 December 2017.

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