Hypnum cupressiforme, from here.

Belongs within: Hypnales.
Contains: Hypnum exannulatum.

Hypnum is a large genus of mosses found worldwide. While more clearly defined than in the past, Hypnum remains a repository for a number of pleurocarpous mosses of less certain relationships, and its content may still require revision. Species within the genus are predominantly distinguished by features of the gametophytes, but this may be complicated by a certain degree of morphological plasticity in relation to growth habitat. Members of the subgenus Limnobium, characterised by soft, flaccid leaves, are semi-aquatic and generally found on wet rocks (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Autoicous or dioicous. Stems creeping to erect, more or less unbranched to closely pinnately branched. Branches long or short. Pseudoparaphyllia usually present. Stem leaves straight to falcate or circinate, secund, narrowly lanceolate to broadly ovate, gradually or abruptly narrowed to acute to filiform apex; margins plane or recurved, entire or denticulate; costa short and double or absent; basal cells usually narrowly rhomboidal, incrassate, porose or not, alar cells distinct, quadrate to rectangular, thin-walled to incrassate, hyaline or not, cells above elliptical to linear-vermicular. Branch leaves more or less similar to stem leaves but smaller. Setae long, reddish, smooth; capsules erect to horizontal, obloid to cylindrical, straight or curved; lid mamillate to conical with subulate beak; exostome teeth transversely striate below, longitudinally point-striate, papillose or smooth above, endostome with tall basal membrane and cilia.

<==Hypnum Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |--H. subg. Drepanium D24
    |    |--H. bambergeri [=Stereodon bambergeri] D24
    |    |--H. callichroum [=Stereodon callichrous; incl. H. rupestre] D24
    |    |--H. canariense [=Stereodon canariensis] D24
    |    |--H. circinale D24
    |    |--H. cupressiforme Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--H. c. var. cupressiforme [incl. H. c. var. minus, Stereodon cupressiformis var. minor] SK02
    |    |    |--H. c. var. ericetorum D24
    |    |    |--H. c. var. filiforme Brid. 1801 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--H. c. var. lacunosum Brid. 1801 SK02 [=H. lacunosum (Brid.) Hoffmann ex Brid. 1819 PL04]
    |    |    |--H. c. var. mamillatum D24
    |    |    |--H. c. var. mossmanianum (Müll.Hal.) Ando 1982 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    `--H. c. var. resupinatum [=Stereodon resupinatus; incl. H. cupressiforme var. longirostre] D24
    |    |--H. hamulosum [=Stereodon hamulosus] D24
    |    |--H. imponens [=Stereodon imponens] D24
    |    |--H. incurvatum [=Stereodon incurvatus] D24
    |    |--H. molluscum [=Ctenidium molluscum; incl. H. intortum, H. provectum] D24
    |    |    |--H. m. var. molluscum D24
    |    |    |--H. m. var. condensatum D24
    |    |    |--H. m. var. erectum non H. chrysophyllum var. erectum Bagnall 1896 D24
    |    |    |--H. m. var. fastigiatum D24
    |    |    |--H. m. var. robustum [incl. H. molluscum var. croceum] D24
    |    |    `--H. m. var. squarrosulum D24
    |    |--H. patientiae [incl. Stereodon lindbergii] D24
    |    |--H. pratense [=Isopterygium pratense] D24
    |    |--H. procerrimum [=Ctenidium procerrimum] D24
    |    `--H. revolutum [=Stereodon revolutus Mitten 1859; incl. H. heufleri, H. plicatile, Stereodon plicatilis] D24
    |--H. subg. Harpidium D24
    |    |--H. capillifolium D24
    |    |--H. commutatum [incl. Amblystegium glaucum] D24
    |    |--H. decipiens [=Amblystegium decipiens, Thuidium decipiens; incl. Hypnum notarisii] D24
    |    |--H. exannulatum D24
    |    |--H. falcatum [=Amblystegium falcatum] D24
    |    |    |--H. f. var. falcatum D24
    |    |    |--H. f. var. gracilescens non H. aduncum var. gracilescens D24
    |    |    `--H. f. var. virescens [incl. Amblystegium falcatum var. fluctuans, H. irrigatum] D24
    |    |--H. intermedium [=Amblystegium intermedium] D24
    |    |--H. lycopodioides [=Amblystegium lycopodioides] D24
    |    |--H. revolvens [=Amblystegium revolvens; incl. H. revolvens var. cossoni] D24
    |    |--H. sendtneri [=Amblystegium sendtneri] D24
    |    |--H. sulcatum [=Amblystegium glaucum var. sulcatum; incl. H. breadalbense, H. sulcatum var. subsulcatum] D24
    |    |--H. vernicosum [=Amblystegium vernicosum] D24
    |    |    |--H. v. var. vernicosum D24
    |    |    `--H. v. var. majus D24
    |    `--H. wilsoni [=Amblystegium sendtneri var. wilsoni, H. sendtneri var. wilsoni] D24
    |         |--H. w. var. wilsoni D24
    |         `--H. w. var. hamatum [=H. aduncum var. hamatum; incl. H. hamifolium] D24
    `--H. subg. Limnobium D24
         |--H. arcticum [incl. Amblystegium smithii] D24
         |--H. eugyrium [=Amblystegium eugyrium, Limnobium eugyrium] D24
         |    |--H. e. var. eugyrium D24
         |    `--H. e. var. mackayi D24
         |--H. molle [=Amblystegium molle] D24
         |    |--H. m. var. molle D24
         |    `--H. m. var. schimperianum D24
         |--H. ochraceum D24
         |    |--H. o. var. ochraceum D24
         |    `--H. o. var. flaccidum [incl. H. ochraceum var. complanatum non H. complanatum] D24
         |--H. palustre [=Amblystegium palustre] D24
         |    |--H. p. var. palustre D24
         |    |--H. p. var. hamulosum nec H. hamulosum nec H. elodes var. hamulosum D24
         |    |--H. p. var. julaceum non H. julaceum D24
         |    |--H. p. var. laxum D24
         |    `--H. p. var. subsphaericarpon D24
         `--H. scorpioides [=Amblystegium scorpioides] D24
              |--H. s. var. scorpioides D24
              `--H. s. var. angustifolium D24

Hypnum incertae sedis:
  H. alternans Brid. 1801 SK02
  H. campbellianum [=Thuidium campbellianum; incl. Aequatoriella bifaria] SK02
  H. castrense H04
  H. chrysogaster Müll.Hal. 1851 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  H. fuegianum D03
  H. heseleri VHJ03
  H. jutlandicum M08
  H. lindbergii M09
  H. megapolitanum SK02 [=Eurhynchium megapolitanum D24, Rhynchostegium megapolitanum SK02]
  H. nelsonii (Broth.) Paris 1896 [=Stereodon nelsonii] SK02
  H. pallescens VH02
  H. perplicatum Dusén 1903 D03
  H. polypterum J87
  H. subchrysogaster (Broth.) Paris 1900 [=Stereodon subchrysogaster] SK02
  H. vaucheri M08

Nomina nuda: Hypnum antipodum Hampe 1880 [=Rhynchohypnum antipodum Hampe ex Wijk, Margad. & Florsch. 1967, Rhynchostegium antipodum Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum austromontanum Hampe 1880 [=Rhynchostegium austromontanum Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum brachytheciella Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1886 [=Rhaphidostegium brachytheciella Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935] SK02
             Hypnum brevicolle Hampe 1880 SK02
             Hypnum decurvatum Hampe 1880 [=Porotrichum decurvatum Hampe ex Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum exalare Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1886 SK02
             Hypnum flagellaceum Paris 1900 [=Stereodon flagellaceus Broth. & Burchard ex Weymouth 1893] SK02
             Hypnum hodgkinsoniae Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum incurvum Hampe 1880 [=Rhynchostegium incurvum Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum lineatum Hooker & Wilson ex Hampe 1880 SK02
             Hypnum luridulum Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum microflagellare Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1888 SK02
             Hypnum myurium Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum novae-cambriae Hampe 1880 [=Porotrichum novae-cambriae Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum obtusifolium Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum parramattense Hampe & Müll.Hal. ex Hampe 1880 [=Rhynchostegium parramattense Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum perpumilum Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum pseudodemissum Müll.Hal. ex Hampe 1880 SK02
             Hypnum pseudohomomallum Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1876 SK02
             Hypnum pseudopilaceum Hampe 1880 [=Porotrichum pseudopilaceum Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum pseudopraelongum Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum rubens Hampe & Müll.Hal. ex Paris 1898 SK02
             Hypnum strictiusculum Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1886 SK02
             Hypnum strumiferum Hampe 1881 [=Rhynchostegium strumiferum Mitt. 1882] SK02
             Hypnum subpungens Hampe & Müll.Hal. ex Hampe 1880 SK02
             Hypnum umbilicatulum Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1876 [=Isopterygium umbilicatulum Mitt. 1882, Isothecium umbilicatulum Mitt. ex Wijk, Florsch. & Margad. 1964] SK02
             Hypnum vesiculifolium Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Hypnum wilhelmii Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02

Hypnum chrysogaster Müll.Hal. 1851 [=H. cupressiforme var. chrysogaster, Stereodon chrysogaster; incl. H. patale] SK02

Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02 [=Stereodon cupressiformis SK02; incl. H. deflectens D24, H. teichophilum D24]

Hypnum cupressiforme var. filiforme Brid. 1801 SK02 [=H. cupressiforme f. filiformis SK02, Stereodon cupressiforme var. filiforme M49]

Hypnum cupressiforme var. mossmanianum (Müll.Hal.) Ando 1982 [=Stereodon cupressiformis var. mossmanianus; incl. Drepanohypnum walterianum, Hypnum walterianum, H. walteri (l. c.), Isopterygium walterianum, Stereodon walterianus] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[M09] Marstaller, R. 2009. Die Moosgesellschaften des geplanten Naturschutzgebietes "Brandenburg und Göringer Stein" bei Göringen (Wartburgkreis, Eisenach). 136. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (3): 529–557.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257–277.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229–236.

Last updated: 7 January 2018.

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