Broad view and diagnostic features of Ditrichum cylindricarpum, from Blue Tier.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.

The Ditrichaceae are a family of mosses that are usually found growing directly on soil. They are distinguished from related families primarily by features of the peristome, the ring of teeth around the opening of the spore capsule, with the teeth generally divided into terete filaments and lacking pit-striations (Seppelt 2007). However, among the genera listed below, at least Eccremidium and Pleuridium are cleistocarpic (their capsules lack opercula, and hence peristomes, and open through breakdown of the capsule wall). The peristome teeth are cleft nearly to the base in Ceratodon and Ditrichum, with the capsule being smooth in Ditrichum but striate in Ceratodon (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Seppelt 2007): Plants minute or rather small to medium-sized, gregarious or loosely to densely tufted. Stems erect, simple or forked, with a central strand. Leaves mostly lanceolate, acuminate or subulate, straight or somewhat curved, rarely sheathing at base; in numerous rows (2 rows in Distichium); costa single, well developed, subpercurrent to excurrent, in section with 1 row of guide cells and 2 stereid bands, adaxial band sometimes much reduced; lamina cells smooth (more or less roughened in subula in Distichium); basal cells elongate, narrower towards the margins, those of basal angles not differentiated or forming a marginal border; distal cells isodiametric or short-rectangular to elongate, walls firm. Specialized asexual reproduction occasional, as multicellular filamentous gemmae borne in axils or along stems, or as specialised tubers or filamentous propagules on rhizoids. Sexual condition dioicous, autoicous, paroicous, or synoicous; perigonia axillary or on short branches adjacent to perichaetia, or terminal on separate plants; perichaetial leaves not markedly differentiated or with a longer, broader sheathing base and shorter subulate apex. Seta short to more or less elongate, yellow to orange, reddish brown, brown, or reddish purple; capsules immersed to emergent and subglobose to long-exserted and more or less cylindric, erect to inclined or pendulous, often more or less curved or asymmetric; cleistocarpous, gymnostomous, or peristomate; annulus, when present, usually of 2-3 rows of larger cells, deciduous; peristome, when present, single, of 16 teeth, variously split into two terete filaments or perforate to near the base; operculum conic to short-rostrate. Calyptra cucullate, rarely mitrate. Spores spheric to ovoid or more or less reniform, finely to coarsely papillose, verrucose, or somewhat vermicular or reticulate.

<==Ditrichaceae [Ditricheae, Ditrichoideae]
    |--Swartzia inclinata [=Distichium inclinatum] D24
    |--Chrysoblastella Williams 1903 SK02
    |    `--C. chilensis (Montagne) Reim. 1926 [=Cheilothela chilensis] SK02
    |--Distichium Bruch & Schimp. 1846 SK02
    |    `--D. capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch. & Schimp. 1846 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Garckea Müll.Hal. 1845 SK02
    |    `--G. flexuosa (Griff.) Margad. & Nork. 1973 [incl. G. comosa, G. phascoides] SK02
    |--Wilsoniella Müll.Hal. 1881 SK02
    |    `--W. karsteniana Müll.Hal. 1881 [=W. karstenii (l. c.)] SK02
    |--Eccremidium Wilson 1846 SK02
    |    |--E. arcuatum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--E. brisbanicum (Broth.) Stone & Scott 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--E. exiguum (Hooker & Wilson) Wilson 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--E. minutum (Mitt.) Stone & Scott 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--E. pulchellum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--E. whiteleggei Broth. 1901 SK02
    |--Ceratodon Brid. 1826 SK02
    |    |--C. conicus [=Trichostomum conicum; incl. Grimmia halophila, Ceratodon minor] D24
    |    |--C. purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. 1826 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |  i. s.: C. p. var. amblyocalyx D03
    |    |    |         C. p. var. brevifolius D24
    |    |    |--C. p. ssp. purpureus SK02
    |    |    `--C. p. ssp. convolutus (Reichardt) Burley 1990 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--C. stenocarpus Bruch & Schimp. ex Müll.Hal. 1849 [=C. purpureus ssp. stenocarpus] SK02
    |--Pleuridium Brid. 1819 SK02
    |    |--P. acuminatum Lind. 1863 SK02
    |    |--P. alternifolium [=Phascum alternifolium] D24
    |    |--P. arnoldii (R.Br.bis) Paris 1897 SK02
    |    |--P. axillare [=Phascum axillare; incl. Pl. nitidum] D24
    |    |    |--P. a. var. axillare D24
    |    |    `--P. a. var. strictum [=Phascum strictum] D24
    |    |--P. brachycaulon (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1889 [=Astomum brachycaulon] SK02
    |    |--P. breutelianum SK02
    |    |--P. curvisetum Stone 1976 SK02
    |    |--P. ecklonii (Hampe ex Müll.Hal.) Snider 1975 SK02
    |    |--P. lampropyxis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Astomum lampropyxis] SK02
    |    |--P. nervosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1856 [=Phascum nervosum] SK02
    |    |    |--P. n. var. nervosum (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    `--P. n. var. minus Watts & Whitel. ex Roth 1911 SK02
    |    |--P. pappeanum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1869 SK02
    |    |--P. subulatum [=Phascum subulatum] D24
    |    `--P. viride (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1889 [=Astomum viride] SK02
    `--Ditrichum Hampe 1867 SK02
         |--D. brachycarpum Hampe 1872 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--D. brevirostre (R.Br.bis) Broth. 1901 SK02
         |--D. conicum D03
         |--D. cylindricarpum (Müll.Hal.) Muell. 1880 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--D. cylindricum M08
         |--D. darjeelingense N02
         |--D. difficile (Duby) Fleischer 1904 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--D. flexicaule [=Didymodon flexicaulis, Leptotrichum flexicaule; incl. L. infuscatum] D24
         |    |--D. f. var. flexicaule D24
         |    |--D. f. var. brevifolium D24
         |    `--D. f. var. densum [=Leptotrichum flexicaule var. densum; incl. L. compactum, Ditrichum drummondi] D24
         |--D. fragilicuspis M49
         |--D. homomallum [=Didymodon homomallus, Leptotrichum homomallum] D24
         |--D. hookeri D03
         |--D. hyalinum D03
         |--D. longisetum D03
         |--D. praealtum D03
         |--D. punctulatum Mitt. 1879 SK02
         |--D. rufescens J87
         |--D. rufoaureum (Hampe) Willis 1955 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--D. strictum (Hooker & Wilson) Hampe 1867 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--D. subcapillaceum (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1902 [=Leptotrichum subcapillaceum] SK02
         |--D. subulatum [=Trichostomum subulatum, Leptotrichum subulatum] D24
         |--D. tenuifolium [=Trichostomum tenuifolium; incl. Trichodon cylindricus] D24
         |--D. tortile [=Trichostomum tortile, Leptotrichum tortile] D24
         |    |--D. t. var. tortile D24
         |    `--D. t. var. pusillum D24
         |--D. vaginans [=Trichostomum vaginans, Leptotrichum vaginans] D24
         `--D. zonatum (see below for synonymy) D24
              |--D. z. var. zonatum D24
              `--D. z. var. scabrifolium Dixon 1902 D24

Nomina nuda: Ceratodon purpureus f. nervoexcedente Costin 1954 SK02
             Ditrichum affine f. alpina Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Ditrichum flaccidulum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Ditrichum latifolium Schwägr. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Ditrichum phaeum Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02

Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. 1826 SK02 [=Mnium purpureum D24, Dicranum purpureum SK02, Didymodon purpureus SK02; incl. Hypnum recurvulum D24, Ceratodon vialis D24]

Ceratodon purpureus ssp. convolutus (Reichardt) Burley 1990 [incl. C. purpureus var. australis Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), C. crassinervis Lorentz 1866, C. purpureus var. crassinervis Zetterst. 1868, C. elimbatus Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900] SK02

Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch. & Schimp. 1846 [=Cynontodium capillaceum, Ditrichum capillaceum, Leptotrichum capillaceum] SK02

Ditrichum brachycarpum Hampe 1872 [=Leptotrichum brachycarpum; incl. D. calcareum, L. subbrachycarpum, D. subbrachycarpum] SK02

Ditrichum cylindricarpum (Müll.Hal.) Muell. 1880 [=Leptotrichum cylindricarpum, Trichostomum cylindricarpum; incl. T. elongatum, Cynontodium elongatum, Ditrichum elongatum, Leptotrichum elongatum, L. scabrifolium (nom. inv.), L. strictiusculum, Ditrichum strictiusculum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

Ditrichum difficile
(Duby) Fleischer 1904 [incl. Leptotrichum affine, D. affine, D. baileyi (n. n.), Leptotrichum baileyi (n. n.), D. flavipes, Le. flexifolium, D. flexifolium, Trichostomum laxifolium, D. laxifolium, Leptotrichum laxifolium, Le. muelleri, Ditrichum muelleri, Lophiodon muelleri, Trichostomum oldfieldii, Ditrichum oldfieldii, Leptotrichum oldfieldii, Le. semilunare, Ditrichum semilunare, Trichostomum setosum, D. setosum, Leptotrichum viride, D. viride] SK02

Ditrichum rufoaureum (Hampe) Willis 1955 [=Aongstroemia rufoaurea, Dicranella rufoaurea, Ditrichum furoaureum (l. c.)] SK02

Ditrichum strictum (Hooker & Wilson) Hampe 1867 [=Lophiodon strictus; incl. Trichostomum australe, Cynontodium australe, Ditrichum australe (nom. illeg.), Leptotrichum australe (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Ditrichum zonatum [=Weisia zonata, D. homomallum var. zonatum; incl. Leptotrichum confertum, Conostomum extenuatum] D24

Eccremidium arcuatum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1848 [=Schistidium arcuatum, Bryum arcuatum; incl. B. tenuissimum (preoc.), Pleuridium tenuissimum (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Eccremidium brisbanicum (Broth.) Stone & Scott 1973 [=Archidium brisbanicum, Micromitrium brisbanicum, Nanomitrium brisbanicum; incl. Pleuridium austrosubulatum] SK02

Eccremidium exiguum (Hooker & Wilson) Wilson 1900 [=Phascum exiguum, Astomum exiguum, Bruchia exigua, Pleuridium exiguum; incl. Pl. krauseanum, Astomum krauseanum (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Eccremidium minutum (Mitt.) Stone & Scott 1973 [=Bruchia minuta, Sporledera minuta; incl. B. whiteleggei var. minor, Ephemerum whiteleggei, B. whiteleggei, Sporledera whiteleggei] SK02

Eccremidium pulchellum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1848 [=Schistidium pulchellum; incl. Pleuridium curvulum (nom. illeg.), Anomobryum filescens, Archidium stolonaceum] SK02

Pleuridium nervosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1856 var. nervosum [incl. Phascum curvulum, Astomum exsereus (n. n.), Pleuridium exserens (nom. inv.), Phascum gracilentum, Astomum gracilentum, Pleuridium gracilentum, A. subexserens, Pl. subexserens] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses, 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 15 December 2017.

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