Macromitrium microstomum, photographed by Niels Klazenga.

Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Orthotrichum subgenus Tenella.

The Orthotrichaceae are a family of mosses that are usually found growing epiphytically or on rocks. The family is particularly diverse in the Pacific region. Members of the family are characterised by a distinctive peristome structure that lacks a basal membrane and has endostome segments alternating with the exostome segments, with the exostome having a thick outer layer and thin inner layer (Goffinet et al. 1998). Genera such as Orthotrichum and Ulota grow in tufts or loose cushions; other genera such as Macromitrium usually form loose mats.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Plants usually tufted. Leaves ovate to narrowly lanceolate, usually acute; margins usually recurved; costa present, ending in or below apex or excurrent; basal cells rectangular to linear, upper cells rounded or hexagonal, often incrassate and papillose. Setae short or long; capsules immersed to longly exserted, ellipsoid, often with long neck, usually striate at maturity, sulcate when dry and empty; stomata superficial or immersed; peristome double, single or rarely absent; calyptrae mitriform or cucullate, often with coarse erect hairs.

<==Orthotrichaceae [Orthotrichales]
    |--Bryomaltaea Goffinet in Goffinet & Vitt 1998 SK02
    |--Codonoblepharon Schwägr. 1824 SK02
    |--Pentastichella pentasticha D03
    |--Muelleriella Dusén 1905 SK02
    |    `--M. crassifolia (Hooker & Wilson) Dusén 1905 [=Orthotrichum crassifolium] SK02
    |--Stoneobryum Norris & Rob. 1981 SK02
    |    `--S. bunyaense Norris & Rob. 1981 SK02
    |--Groutiella Steere 1950 SK02
    |    |--G. mucronifolia J87
    |    `--G. tomentosa (Hornsch.) Wijk & Margad. 1960 SK02
    |--Macrocoma (Müll.Hal.) Grout 1944 SK02
    |    `--M. tenuis (Hooker & Greville) Vitt. 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |         |--M. t. ssp. tenuis J87
    |         `--M. t. ssp. sullivantii J87
    |--Schlotheimia Brid. 1812 SK02
    |    |--S. brownii Schwägr. 1826 [=Macromitrium brownii; incl. S. baileyi] SK02
    |    |--S. campbelliana M49b
    |    |--S. funiformis Taylor ex Dixon 1950 SK02
    |    |--S. gracillima D03
    |    |--S. jamesonii J87
    |    `--S. tecta J87
    |--Zygodon Hooker & Taylor 1818 SK02
    |    |--Z. conoideus [=Bryum conoideum] D24
    |    |--Z. curvicaulis Dusén 1903 D03
    |    |--Z. forsteri [=Bryum forsteri] D24
    |    |    |--Z. f. var. forsteri D24
    |    |    `--Z. f. var. sendtneri [=Euzygodon sendtneri] D24
    |    |--Z. gracilis [incl. Z. nowellii] D24
    |    |--Z. gracillimus Broth. ex Fleischer 1904 [incl. Z. rodwayi Broth. 1914] SK02
    |    |--Z. hatcheri Dusén 1903 D03
    |    |--Z. hookeri Hampe 1860 [incl. Z. drummondii var. major (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |--Z. hyadesii D03
    |    |--Z. intermedius Bruch & Schimp. 1838 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--Z. lapponicus (see below for synonymy) D24
    |    |--Z. menziesii (Schwägr.) Arnott 1827 [=Codonoblepharon menziesii Schwägr. 1824; incl. Z. drummondii] SK02
    |    |    |--Z. m. var. menziesii M49a
    |    |    `--Z. m. var. angustifolius M49a
    |    |--Z. minutus Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1856 SK02
    |    |--Z. mougeotii (see below for synonymy) D24
    |    |--Z. obtusifolius Hooker 1819 [=Bryomaltaea obtusifolia (Hooker) Goffinet in Goffinet & Vitt 1998] SK02
    |    |--Z. reinwardtii (Hornsch.) Braun 1838 [incl. Z. anomalus] SK02
    |    |--Z. rufescens A49
    |    |--Z. stirtoni D24
    |    `--Z. viridissimus D24 [=Bryum viridissimum Broth. ex Bailey 1891 (n. n.) D24, SK02]
    |         |--Z. v. var. viridissimus D24
    |         `--Z. v. var. rupestris D24
    |--Ulota Mohr 1806 SK02
    |    |--U. breviseta A49
    |    |--U. bruchii [=Weissia bruchii] D24
    |    |--U. crenato-erosa D03
    |    |--U. crispa SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--U. c. var. crispa D24
    |    |    |--U. c. var. crispula D24
    |    |    `--U. c. var. intermedia D24
    |    |--U. curvifolia D24
    |    |--U. darwinii D03
    |    |--U. dixonii Malta 1933 SK02
    |    |--U. drummondii [=Orthotrichum drummondii; incl. Weissia drummondii] D24
    |    |--U. eremitensis D03
    |    |--U. fuegiana D03
    |    |--U. fulva SK02
    |    |--U. fulvella D03
    |    |--U. glabella D03
    |    |--U. gymnomitria D03
    |    |--U. hamata Dusén 1903b D03
    |    |--U. hutchinsiae [=Orthotrichum hutchinsiae; incl. Weissia americana] D24
    |    |    |--U. h. var. hutchinsiae D24
    |    |    `--U. h. var. rufescens D24
    |    |--U. incana D03
    |    |--U. inclinata D03
    |    |--U. laticiliata Malta 1933 SK02
    |    |--U. leiothecia D03
    |    |--U. lobbiana D03
    |    |--U. ludwigii D24 [=Orthotrichum ludwigii D24; incl. U. coarctata M08, Weissia coarctata D24]
    |    |--U. lutea (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--U. macro-calycina D03
    |    |--U. magellanica D03
    |    |--U. membranata Malta 1933 SK02
    |    |--U. phyllantha Brid. 1819 SK02 [=Weissia phyllantha D24; incl. U. scotica] D24
    |    |    |--U. p. var. phyllantha D24
    |    |    `--U. p. var. stricta Nicholson 1900 D24
    |    |--U. pygmiothecium D03
    |    |--U. savatieri D03
    |    |--U. viridis Venturi 1893 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--U. vittata [=Weissia vittata; incl. U. calvescens] D24
    |--Orthotrichum Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |    |  i. s.: O. alpestre SK02
    |    |         O. assimile Müll.Hal. 1849 [incl. O. acroblepharis, O. longitheca] SK02
    |    |         O. austro-cupulatum [incl. Barbula rostrata] M49b
    |    |         O. beckettii M49b
    |    |         O. calvum [incl. O. waltheri (n. n.), Ulota waltheri (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |         O. compactum Dusén 1903 D03
    |    |         O. elegantulum D03
    |    |         O. gymnostomum D24
    |    |         O. hortense Bosw. 1892 SK02
    |    |         O. lancifolium A49
    |    |         O. macloskii Dusén 1903 D03
    |    |         O. pseudopumilum [incl. O. cyathiforme] SK02
    |    |         O. sainsburyi Allison 1949 A49
    |    |         O. scanicum M08
    |    |         O. tasmanicum Hooker & Wilson 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--O. subg. Affinia D24
    |    |    |--O. affine D24
    |    |    |    |--O. a. var. affine D24
    |    |    |    |--O. a. var. fastigiatum [incl. O. neglectum] D24
    |    |    |    `--O. a. var. rivale D24
    |    |    |--O. leiocarpum [incl. O. striatum] D24
    |    |    |--O. lyellii [incl. Conferva orthotrichi] D24
    |    |    |--O. shawii D24
    |    |    `--O. speciosum D24
    |    |--O. subg. Cupulata D24
    |    |    |--O. anomalum D24
    |    |    |    |--O. a. var. anomalum D24
    |    |    |    `--O. a. var. saxatile [incl. O. anomalum var. cylindricum] D24
    |    |    `--O. cupulatum Hoffm. ex Brid. 1801 D24, SK02
    |    |         |--O. c. var. cupulatum D24
    |    |         `--O. c. var. nudum [incl. O. c. var. riparium] D24
    |    |--O. (subg. Diaphana) diaphanum D24
    |    |--O. (subg. Obtusifolia) obtusifolium D24
    |    |--O. (subg. Rupestria) rupestre Schleich. ex Schwägr. 1816 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--O. r. var. rupestre D24
    |    |    |--O. r. var. franzonianum D24
    |    |    |--O. r. var. rupincola D24
    |    |    |--O. r. var. sehlmeyeri D24
    |    |    `--O. r. var. sturmii D24
    |    `--O. subg. Tenella D24
    `--Macromitrium Brid. 1819 SK02
         |--M. archeri Mitt. 1859 [incl. M. asperulum, M. fimbriatum (nom. inv.), M. muelleri, M. pusillum] SK02
         |--M. aurescens Hampe 1860 [=M. aureum (l. c.); incl. M. cylindromitrium, M. sordidevirens] SK02
         |--M. bifasciculare Müller ex Dusén 1903 D03
         |--M. brachypodium Müll.Hal. 1857 [incl. M. brevisetaceum] SK02
         |--M. brevicaule (Besch.) Broth. 1903 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. caducipilum A49
         |--M. caloblastoides Müll.Hal. 1898 [incl. M. dimorphum] SK02
         |--M. cirrosum J87
         |--M. diaphanum Müll.Hal. 1872 [incl. M. circinicladum] SK02
         |--M. dielsii Broth. ex Vitt & Ramsay 1985 SK02
         |--M. erosulum [incl. M. submucronifolium] SK02
         |--M. exsertum Broth. 1893 SK02
         |--M. funiforme Dixon 1942 SK02
         |--M. gracile M49a
         |    |--M. g. var. gracile M49a
         |    |--M. g. var. proboscideum M49a
         |    `--M. g. var. retusum M49a
         |--M. grossirete A49
         |--M. guatemalense J87
         |--M. harioti D03
         |--M. hemitrichodes Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. homalacron J87
         |--M. hortoniae Vitt & Ramsay 1985 SK02
         |--M. hymenostomum D03
         |--M. incurvifolium (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. involutifolium (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |--M. i. var. involutifolium (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--M. i. var. ptychomitrioides (Besch.) Vitt & Ramsay 1985 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. krausei D03
         |--M. leratii Broth. & Paris 1906 SK02
         |--M. ligulaefolium Broth. 1898 [incl. M. ligulatum, M. woollsianum] SK02
         |    |--M. l. var. ligulaefolium SK02
         |    `--M. ‘woollsianum’ var. chlorophyllosum Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
         |--M. ligulare Mitt. 1860 [incl. M. luehmannianum] SK02
         |--M. longifolium J87
         |--M. longipes SK02
         |--M. longirostre (Hooker) Schwägr. 1823 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. mauritianum SK02
         |--M. microstomum (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--M. moorcroftii N02
         |--M. nepalense N02
         |--M. pentastichum J87
         |--M. peraristatum Broth. 1893 SK02
         |--M. piliferum SK02
         |--M. podocarpi J87
         |--M. prorepens [incl. M. abbreviatum] SK02
         |--M. ramsayae C88
         |--M. repandum Müll.Hal. 1883 [incl. M. pallidovirens, M. pugionifolium, M. whiteleggei] SK02
         |--M. saddleanum D03
         |--M. scoparium J87
         |--M. stoneae Vitt & Ramsay 1985 SK02
         |--M. stratosum J87
         |--M. subhemitrichodes Müll.Hal. 1898 (n. d.) [=M. richmondiae Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 (n. n.)] SK02
         |    |--M. s. var. subhemitrichodes SK02
         |    `--M. s. var. hodgkinsoniae Müll.Hal. 1898 (n. d.) SK02
         |--M. subtile B57
         |--M. subulatum Mitt. 1882 SK02
         |--M. tenax D03
         |--M. tongense [=Leiostoma tongense (nom. inv.)] SK02
         |--M. urceolatum SK02
         `--M. weissioides Müll.Hal. 1872 (n. d.) SK02

Nomina nuda: Macromitrium bayleyi Mitt. ex Muell. 1881 SK02
             Macromitrium eucalyptorum var. brevipedicellatum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium caloblastum Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1889 SK02
             Macromitrium eucalyptorum var. gracile Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium hartmannii Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1888 SK02
             Macromitrium indistinctum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium tasmanicum f. lutescens Broth. 1895 SK02
             Macromitrium macrophyllum Mitt. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium microblastum Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [incl. M. sheareri Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Macromitrium rupicolum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium sayeri Mitt. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Macromitrium spirale Hampe 1880 SK02
             Macromitrium spurio-crispulum Dusén 1903 D03
             Macromitrium sub-piliferum Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum angustissimum Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum hymenomitrium Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum ligulatum Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum nigritellum Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum paleomitrium Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum perpusillum Dusén 1903 D03
             Orthotrichum subassimile Dusén 1903 D03
             Pentastichella aurea Dusén 1903 D03
             Schlotheimia baileyi f. compacta Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Ulota glaucescens Watts & Whitel. 1906 non U. lutea var. glaucescens SK02
             Ulota macrodonta Dusén 1903 D03
             Ulota persubulata Dusén 1903 D03
             Ulota stellulata Hooker & Greville ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Zygodon martinae Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Zygodon stellatum Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02

Macrocoma tenuis (Hooker & Greville) Vitt. 1973 [=Macromitrium tenue; incl. Macromitrium eucalyptorum, Macromitrium geheebii (n. n.), Macromitrium johnsonii (nom. inv.), Macromitrium microphyllum, Macromitrium novae-valesiae] SK02

Macromitrium brevicaule (Besch.) Broth. 1903 [incl. M. mucronulatum, M. macronulatum (l. c.), M. subbrevicaule, M. wattsii] SK02

Macromitrium hemitrichodes Schwägr. 1827 [incl. M. amoenum, Orthotrichum amoenum (nom. inv.), M. baileyi, M. intermedium] SK02

Macromitrium incurvifolium (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 [=Orthotrichum incurvifolium, Leiotheca incurvifolia] SK02

Macromitrium involutifolium (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 [=Orthotrichum involutifolium, Leiotheca involutifolia] SK02

Macromitrium involutifolium (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 var. involutifolium [incl. M. daemelii, M. incurvulum, M. malacoblastum, M. sieberi (nom. inv.)] SK02

Macromitrium involutifolium var. ptychomitrioides (Besch.) Vitt & Ramsay 1985 [incl. M. carinatum, M. platyphyllaceum, M. viridissimum] SK02

Macromitrium longirostre (Hooker) Schwägr. 1823 [incl. Orthotrichum acutifolium, M. longipes var. acutifolium Watts & Whitel. ex Wijk, Margad. & Florsch. 1969 (n. n.), M. longirostre var. acutifolium Watts & Whitel. 1906 (n. n.), M. rodwayi, M. pertorquescens var. torquatulum] SK02

Macromitrium microstomum (Hooker & Greville) Schwägr. 1827 [=Orthotrichum microstomum, Leiotheca microstoma; incl. Macromitrium adstrictum, Ma. linearifolium (preoc.), Ma. owahiense, Ma. prolixum, Meteorium prolixum (nom. inv.), Ma. reinwardtii, Ma. scottiae, Ma. tasmanicum, Ma. weymouthii] SK02

Orthotrichum rupestre Schleich. ex Schwägr. 1816 SK02 [incl. O. praeperistomatum SK02, O. rupestriforme SK02, O. sullivanii SK02]

Orthotrichum tasmanicum Hooker & Wilson 1848 [incl. Orthotrichum lateciliatum var. apiculatum, Orthotrichum campbelliae, Orthotrichum encalyptaceum, Orthotrichum eucalyptaceum (l. c.), Orthotrichum lateciliatum, Orthotrichum laterale, Ulota lateralis, Orthotrichum lawrencei, Orthodontium (l. c.) lawrencei, Orthotrichum encalyptaceum var. tenuisetum, Orthotrichum whiteleggei] SK02

Ulota crispa SK02 [=Bryum crispum D24, Orthotrichum crispum SK02; incl. Ulota ulophylla SK02, Weissia ulophylla D24]

Ulota lutea (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860 [=Orthotrichum luteum; incl. O. croceum (n. n.), Ulota crocea (n. n.), U. weymouthii] SK02

Ulota viridis Venturi 1893 [incl. U. anceps, U. appressa (nom. inv.), U. cochleata, U. lutea var. glaucescens, U. membranacea] SK02

Zygodon intermedius
Bruch & Schimp. 1838 [incl. Z. brachyodus, Z. brownii, Z. confertus, Z. conoideus var. elongatus, Z. hymenodontioides] SK02

Zygodon lapponicus [=Amphoridium lapponicum, Anoectangium lapponicum, Gymnostomum lapponicum; incl. Zygodon teichophilus, Didymodon turgescens] D24

Zygodon mougeotii [=Amphoridium mougeotii, Anoectangium mougeotii, Gymnostomum mougeotii; incl. Barbula woodii] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A49] Allison, K. W. 1949. Description of a new species with notes and localities for some Otago and Southland mosses. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 278–283.

[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[M49a] Martin, W. 1949a. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257–277.

[M49b] Martin, W. 1949b. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supplement no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 7 January 2018.

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