Diphyscium foliosum, from here.

Belongs within: Embryophyta.
Contains: Sphagnales, Andreaeopsida, Polytrichaceae, Tetraphidales, Bryidae, Funariidae, Grimmiales, Archidium, Seligeriaceae, Dicranaceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryum, Pottiaceae, Ditrichaceae, Erpodiaceae, Calymperaceae, Ephemeraceae.

The Bryophyta are the mosses, the largest living group of non-vascular land plants. Mosses are distinguished by the presence of distinct leaves and multicellular rhizoids on the gametophyte (which is the dominant part of the life-cycle, supporting the dependent sporophytes), and of a columnella (a cylinder of sterile cells) within the spore capsule (De Luna et al. 2003). Within the mosses, all authors support a division between the basalmost Sphagnopsida and the remaining mosses, with the Polytrichopsida and Bryopsida together forming a clade distinguished by a spore capsule opening through an operculum rather than dehiscently as in more basal forms. Sphagnopsida are represented in the modern flora by the genera Sphagnum and Ambuchanania; Ambuchanania leucobryoides is a rare species found growing in sandy washes in a small number of localities in Tasmania (Threatened Species Section, Tasmania, 2008).

Polytrichopsida and Bryopsida are distinguished by the forms of the teeth around the capsule opening (forming the peristome): in Polytrichopsida, they are nematodontous (formed from entire cells) while in Bryopsida they are arthrodontous (formed from fragments of cell walls). Within the Bryopsida, the peristome comprises a single circlet of teeth in members of the subclass Dicranidae whereas members of other subclasses typically have a peristome of two circlets (reduced or lost in some taxa).

<==Bryophyta [Bryophytina, Musci]
    |--Sphagnopsida SK02
    |    |--Sphagnales D24
    |    `--Ambuchanania Seppelt & Crum 1999 [Ambuchananiaceae, Ambuchananiales] SK02
    |         `--A. leucobryoides (Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats.) Seppelt & Crum 1999 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--Bryatae [Acrocarpineae, Buxbaumiales, Buxbaumiidae] C-S98
         |  i. s.: Eustichia [Eustichiaceae] D03b
         |           `--E. longirostris D03b
         |--Andreaeopsida FHH01
         `--+--Polytrichopsida [Nematodonteae] SK02
            |    |--Polytrichaceae D24
            |    `--Tetraphidales SK02
            `--Bryopsida [Acrocarpae, Aplolepideae, Arthrodonteae, Diplolepideae] SK02
                 |  i. s.: Schistostega [Schistostegaceae] D24
                 |           `--S. osmundacea [=Mnium osmundaceum] D24
                 |         Timmia [Timmiaceae] D24
                 |           |--T. austriaca D24
                 |           |--T. megapolitana D24
                 |           `--T. norvegica [incl. T. scotica] D24
                 |--Bryidae BC98
                 |--Funariidae SK02
                 |--Diphyscium Mohr 1803 [Diphysciaceae, Diphysciales, Diphysciidae] SK02
                 |    |--D. foliosum [incl. Mollia haggarti, Webera sessilis] D24
                 |    |    |--D. f. var. foliosum D24
                 |    |    `--D. f. var. acutifolium D24
                 |    `--D. mucronifolium Mitt. 1855 SK02
                 `--Dicranidae SK02
                      |--Grimmiales SK02
                      |--Archidium SK02
                      |--Seligeriaceae SK02
                      |--Dicranales SK02
                      |    |--Dicranaceae SK02
                      |    |--Fissidentaceae SK02
                      |    `--Leucobryaceae SK02
                      |         |--Leucobryum SK02
                      |         `--Exodictyon B57
                      |              |--E. dentatum B57
                      |              `--E. subscabrum SK02
                      `--Pottiales SK02
                           |--Pottiaceae SK02
                           |--Ditrichaceae SK02
                           |--Erpodiaceae SK02
                           |--Calymperaceae SK02
                           |--Ephemeraceae SK02
                           |--Bryobartramia Sainsbury 1948 [Bryobartramiaceae] SK02
                           |    `--B. novae-valesiae (Broth. ex Roth) Stone & Scott 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                           `--Viridivellus Stone 1976 [Viridivelleraceae] SK02
                                `--V. pulchellum Stone 1976 SK02

Bryophyta incertae sedis:
  Palamocladium leskeoides PK03
  Sporogonites BC98
  Trachypodaceae N02
    |--Trachypodopsis serrulata N02
    `--Duthiella declinata N02
  Catharomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
    `--C. ciliatum (Hedw.) Wilson 1854 [=Hypopterygium ciliatum] SK02
  Cladomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
    |--C. ericoides (Hooker) Wilson 1854 SK02
    `--C. gracile D03a
  Cyrtopus (Brid.) Hooker 1867 SK02
    `--C. setosus (Hedw.) Hooker 1867 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Mniodendron dendroides [=Bryum dendroides, Hypnodendron dendroides; incl. Mniodendron palmaeum] SK02
  Mniomalia Müll.Hal. 1874 SK02
    `--M. semilimbata Müll.Hal. 1874 SK02
  Streblotrichum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    `--S. bicolor (Bruch & Schimp.) Loeske 1909 [=Barbula bicolor, Gymnostomum bicolor] SK02
  Acanthocladium macgregorii SK02
  Chrysocladium phaeum SK02
  Phyllogonium [Phyllogoniaceae] J87
    `--P. fulgens J87
  Prionodon [Prionodontaceae] J87
    `--P. densus J87
  Pseudodistichium buchanani M49b
  *Bellia nervosa M49a
  Blindiopsis immersa M49a
  Sciadocladus menziesii M49a
  Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans M08
  Homomallium incurvatum M08
  Pleurozium schreberi M08
  Pseudoleskeella M08
    |--P. catenulata M08
    `--P. nervosa M08
  Rhizomnium punctatum M08
  Leptobarbula berica M09

Nomen nudum: Cladomnium crenato-obtusum Dusén 1903 D03a

Ambuchanania leucobryoides (Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats.) Seppelt & Crum 1999 [=Sphagnum leucobryoides Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats. 1990] SK02

Bryobartramia novae-valesiae (Broth. ex Roth) Stone & Scott 1973 [=Trachycarpidium novae-valesiae; incl. B. robbinsii] SK02

Cyrtopus setosus (Hedw.) Hooker 1867 [=Anictangium setosum, Cladomnion setosum, Garovaglia setosa (n. n.)] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[BC98] Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kenrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck & W. E. Stein. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263–292.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903a. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[M09] Marstaller, R. 2009. Die Moosgesellschaften des geplanten Naturschutzgebietes "Brandenburg und Göringer Stein" bei Göringen (Wartburgkreis, Eisenach). 136. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (3): 529–557.

[M49a] Martin, W. 1949a. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257–277.

[M49b] Martin, W. 1949b. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supplement no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[PK03] Piippo, S., & T. Koponen. 2003. Review of the bryofloristic connections of New Guinea Island. Telopea 10 (1): 467–476.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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