Calymperes erosum, photographed by Li Zhang.

Belongs within: Musci.

The Calymperaceae are a family of mosses found around the world, with their highest diversity in the tropics and subtropics. Calymperaceous mosses most often grow epiphytically or epixylically (on wood), but may also grow on rocks or on the ground. Major genera within the Calymperaceae include Calymperes, in which the calyptra is persistent, and Syrrhopodon, with a deciduous calyptra.

Characters (from Reese 1993): Plants erect (rarely prostrate and with erect-ascending branches), with simple or highly forked stems in loose to dense mats or cushions; stems lacking central strand; rhizoids brown to red or purple. Leaves sometimes dimorphic (gemmiferous and nongemmiferous), straight to crispate or variously contorted or twisted when dry; intramarginal files of differentiated cells (teniolae) present (some Calymperes) or lacking (most Syrrhopodon); costa single and strong, showing median guide cells with dorsal and ventral bands of stereid cells in section (stereid cells poorly developed in some Calymperes); basal part of leaf (lower lamina) mostly sheathing and with evident shoulders, including usually conspicuous fields (cancellinae) of enlarged, hyaline, externally and internally porose cells; upper part of leaf (upper lamina) shorter to many times longer than lower lamina, margins mostly variously thickened or bordered, or both, but rarely undifferentiated, mostly toothed at least in part; cells of upper lamina isodiametric to vertically or transversely elongate, smooth to bulging to mammillose to uni- or pluripapillose; gemmae frequently present on leaves in Calymperes, less common in Syrrhopodon, mostly ventral on costa at leaf apex but sometimes borne along costa at midleaf or lower, clavate, fusiform, or filiform-uniseriate. Dioicous (rarely monoicous). Perichaetial leaves scarcely differentiated. Setae smooth, mostly elongate; capsules cylindrical, mostly exserted but rarely immersed; stomata scanty, phaneropore; peristomes single or lacking, often vestigial, the teeth variously papillose externally, mostly smooth internally, with weak transverse bars; opercula rostrate. Calyptrae naked, smooth or papillose, cucullate and deciduous or rarely conical-mitrate (Syrrhopodon), or clasping the seta below the capsule and persistent (Calymperes), the spores then escaping through vertical fissures in the calyptra. Spores mostly spherical and finely papillose.

    |--Calymperopsis (Müll.Hal.) Fleisch 1913 SK02
    |--Arthrocormus Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
    |    `--A. schimperi (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
    |--Exostratum Ellis 1985 SK02
    |    `--E. blumei (Nees ex Hampe) Ellis 1985 SK02
    |--Octoblepharum Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |    |--O. albidum Hedw. 1801 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--O. exiguum Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
    |--Leucophanes Brid. 1826 SK02
    |    |--L. angustifolium Renauld & Cardot 1891 SK02
    |    |--L. candidum (Schwägr.) Lindb. 1865 SK02
    |    |--L. glaucescens Müller ex Fleisch. 1904 DD05
    |    |--L. glaucum (Schwägr.) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--L. nicobaricum Müller ex Gangulee 1971 DD05
    |    `--L. octoblepharioides Brid. 1827 SK02
    |--Mitthyridium Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. constrictum (Sull.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. crassum (Broth.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. fasciculatum (Hooker & Greville) Rob. 1975 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--M. flavum (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. jungquilianum (Mitt.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. leucoloma (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. luteum (Mitt.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. obtusifolium (Lindb.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. papuanum (Broth.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. perundulatum (Broth.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |    |--M. repens (Harv.) Rob. 1975 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--M. subfasciculatum [=Codonoblapharon subfasciculatum, Syrrhopodon subfasciculatum] SK02
    |    |--M. subluteum (Müll.Hal.) Nowak 1980 SK02
    |    |--M. undulatum (Broth. & Geh.) Rob. 1975 [=Syrrhopodon undulatus, Thyridium undulatum] SK02
    |    `--M. wallisii (Müll.Hal.) Rob. 1975 SK02
    |--Calymperes Swartz 1814 SK02
    |    |--C. afzelii Swartz 1818 SK02
    |    |--C. boulayi Besch. 1973 SK02
    |    |--C. couguiense Besch. 1873 SK02
    |    |--C. crassinerve (Mitt.) Jaeger 1873 SK02
    |    |--C. dozyanum Mitt. 1859 SK02
    |    |--C. erosum Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. C. kennedianum] SK02
    |    |--C. graeffeanum Müll.Hal. 1864 SK02
    |    |--C. lonchophyllum Schwägr. 1816 SK02
    |    |--C. moluccense Schwägr. 1824 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--C. motleyi Mitt. ex Dozy & Molk. 1856 (see below for synonymy) DD05
    |    |--C. palisotii Schwägr. 1816 SK02
    |    |--C. porrectum Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    |--C. schmidtii Broth. 1901 SK02
    |    |--C. serratum Braun ex Müll.Hal. 1849 SK02
    |    |--C. strictifolium (Mitt.) Roth 1911 SK02
    |    |--C. subintegrum Broth. 1901 SK02
    |    |--C. taitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    `--C. tenerum Müll.Hal. 1872 [incl. C. tenerum var. edamense] SK02
    |         |--C. t. var. tenerum SG07
    |         `--C. t. var. teniolata Gangulee 1972 SG07
    `--Syrrhopodon Schwägr. 1824 SK02
         |--S. albovaginatus Schwägr. 1824 SK02
         |--S. aristifolius Mitt. 1868 SK02
         |--S. armatus Mitt. 1863 [incl. S. cairnensis, S. fimbriatulus Müll.Hal. 1874, S. fimbriatus (preoc.)] SK02
         |--S. ciliatus (Hooker) Schwägr. 1824 SK02
         |--S. clavatus SK02
         |--S. confertus Sande Lac. 1872 [incl. S. amoenus, Leucophanella amoena] SK02
         |--S. croceus Mitt. 1859 [=Calymperidium croceum] SK02
         |--S. cyrtacanthos Reese 1992 SK02
         |--S. gardneri (Hooker) Schwägr. 1824 SK02
         |--S. gaudichaudii J87
         |--S. incompletus [incl. Calymperes armatum] SK02
         |--S. involutus Schwägr. 1824 [incl. S. rufescens, Leucophanella rufescens, S. revolutus] SK02
         |--S. mammillosus Müll.Hal. 1874 SK02
         |--S. muelleri (Dozy & Molk.) Sande Lac. 1870 [=Calymperidium muelleri] SK02
         |--S. parasiticus (Brid.) Besch. 1896 [incl. S. wattsii, Calymperopsis wattsii (Broth.) Fleischer 1913] SK02
         |--S. perarmatus Broth. 1915 SK02
         |--S. platycerii Mitt. 1873 [incl. S. novae-valesiae] SK02
         |--S. prolifer Schwägr. 1827 SK02
         |    |--S. p. var. prolifer SK02
         |    `--S. p. var. mossmanensis Reese 1989 SK02
         |--S. spiculosus Hooker & Greville 1825 SK02
         |--S. stoneae Reese 1989 SK02
         |--S. trachyphyllus Montagne 1856 SK02
         `--S. tristichus Nees ex Schwägr. 1842 [incl. S. kindelii, S. parvicaulis] SK02

Nomina nuda: Leucophanes apiculatum Hampe ex Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Syrrhopodon novae-valesiae f. microcarpa Bailey 1913 SK02

Calymperes moluccense Schwägr. 1824 [=C. palisotii ssp. moluccense (Schwägr.) Menzel 1990; incl. C. nigrescens] SK02

Calymperes motleyi Mitt. ex Dozy & Molk. 1856 [incl. C. isleanum Besch. 1880, C. omanicum Besch. 1895, C. panduraefolium Broth. 1898] DD05

Leucophanes glaucum (Schwägr.) Mitt. 1859 [incl. Leucophanes australe Broth. 1891, Leucobryum australe Watts & Whitel. 1902 (nom. inv.)] SK02

Mitthyridium fasciculatum (Hooker & Greville) Rob. 1975 [=Syrrhopodon fasciculatus, Calymperes fasciculatum (preoc.), Thyridium fasciculatum] SK02

Mitthyridium repens (Harv.) Rob. 1975 [=S. repens, Calymperes repens, Thyridium repens; incl. Syrrhopodon humile (n. n.)] SK02

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 1801 SK02 [=Bryum albidum Linnaeus 1753 (nom. inv.) B05; incl. Leucobryum cycadis (nom. inv.) SK02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 11-42.

[DD05] Daniels, A. E. D. & P. Daniels. 2005. Additions to the moss flora of the Indian mainland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 93-100.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Reese, W. D. 1993. Calymperaceae. Flora Neotropica 58: 1-101.

[SG07] Singh, S. K. & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 155-164.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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