Specimens of Siliquaria trochlearis. Photo from here.

Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Siliquariidae are a family of sessile gastropods, living embedded within sponges with their aperture protruding for filter feeding. The mantle (and consequently the shell) bears a slit on the right side in members of the subfamily Siliquariinae, but both are entire in Stephopoma.

Characters (from Morton 1953): Shell loosely spiral, embedded in substratum, non-septate; animal never vermiform; opeculum well-developed, variously setose. Ciliary feeding, mucus-traps not produced; gill filaments rod-like or cirriform, gills may be protruded to act as sweeping net. Sole of foot less reduced than in superficially similar Vermetidae; pedal gland and pedal tentacles absent. Endostyle well-developed; feeding groove a narrow gutter. Radula reduced; oesophagus a narrow tube throughout; anterior lobe of digestive gland lost; proximal part of intestine a narrow groove. Mantle with slit on right side in Pyxipoma and Siliquaria (entire in Stephopoma), no median slit. Eggs produced singly in capsules, brooded within brood pouch or in pallial cavity.

<==Siliquariidae [Siliquariacea, Siliquariana]
    |  i. s.: Pyxipoma Moerch 1860 P61
    |           |--*P. multistriata [=Siliquaria multistriata] P61
    |           `--P. weldii (Ten. Woods 1876) P61
    |--Stephopoma Mörch 1860 BR05 [incl. Lilax Finlay 1927 F27; Stephopomatinae BR05]
    |    |--*S. roseum (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) [=Vermetus roseus] P61
    |    `--S. nucleogranosum Verco 1904 S11 [=*Lilax nucleogranosum F27]
    `--Siliquariinae BR05
         |--Tenagodus Guettard 1770 [Tenagodidae] BR05
         |    |--T. anguinus (Linnaeus 1758) MG-H11
         |    |--T. australis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) MG-H11
         |    |--T. bernardi C60
         |    `--T. occlusus (Tenison Woods 1877) DK08
         `--Siliquaria Bruguière 1789 BR05
              |--*S. anguina [=Serpula anguina] P61
              |--S. maoria Powell 1940 P61
              |--S. ponderosa Morch 1860 H09
              |--S. scalariformis Morch 1860 H09
              |--S. senex Marwick 1926 F27
              |--S. trochlearis Morch 1860 H09
              `--S. weldii [incl. S. cumingi Moerch 1860] F27

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

Morton, J. E. 1953. The structure and adaptations of the New Zealand Vermetidae. Part II. The genera Stephopoma and Pyxipoma. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 79 (1): 20-42.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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