Hypopterygium arbuscula, from Juan Larraín.

Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Hookeriaceae.

The Hookeriales is an order of mosses found primarily in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. They are distinguished from other pleurocarpous mosses by having undifferentiated alar cells. Members of the Hookeriales can be divided between the Ptychomniineae, with furrowed capsules, and the Hookeriineae with smooth capsules.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Pleurocarpous. Leaves often complanate and often asymmetrical, sometimes with border of elongate cells; costa single or double, long or short or absent; alar cells not differentiated. Setae often rough; capsules exserted, erect, inclined or horizontal; peristome double, exostome teeth long, tapering, often furrowed, usually with thickened lamellae on inner face, basal membrane of endostome high, cilia absent; calyptrae conical, often hairy or fringed.

    |  i. s.: Leskeodon cubensis VH02
    |         Pilotrichum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 VH02, SK02
    |           `--P. fendleri VH02
    |         Crossomitrium rotundifolium VH02
    |         Campylotrichum Sikora 1836 SK02
    |--Ptychomniineae SK02
    |    |--Ptychomniaceae SK02
    |    |    |--Glyphothecium Hampe 1860 SK02
    |    |    |    |--G. alare M49b
    |    |    |    `--G. sciuroides (Hooker) Hampe 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    |--Tetraphidopsis Broth. & Dixon 1912 SK02
    |    |    |    `--T. pusilla (Hooker & Wilson) Dixon 1913 SK02
    |    |    |--Hampeella Müll.Hal. 1881 SK02
    |    |    |    |--H. alaris (Dixon & Sainsbury) Sainsbury 1951 SK02
    |    |    |    `--H. pallens (Sande Lac.) Fleischer 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    `--Ptychomnion (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |         |--P. aciculare (Brid.) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |         |--P. cygnisetum (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |         |--P. densifolium (Brid.) Jaeger 1879 SK02
    |    |         `--P. subaciculare D03
    |    `--Garovagliaceae SK02
    |         |--Euptychium Schimp. 1866 SK02
    |         |    |--E. cuspidatum (Mitt.) Mitt. 1881 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |         |    |--E. mucronatum Hampe 1874 [=Garovaglia mucronata] SK02
    |         |    |--E. robustum Hampe 1874 [=Garovaglia robusta] SK02
    |         |    `--E. setigerum (Sull.) Broth. 1906 [=Garovaglia setigera; incl. G. longicuspis] SK02
    |         `--Garovaglia Endl. 1836 SK02
    |              |--G. elegans (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Sande Lac. 1863 SK02
    |              |    |--G. e. var. elegans [incl. Endotrichella campbelliana] SK02
    |              |    `--G. e. var. dietrichiae (Müll.Hal.) During 1977 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              |--G. powellii Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |              |    |--G. p. ssp. powellii SK02
    |              |    `--G. p. ssp. muelleri (Hampe) During 1977 [=Endotrichum muelleri] SK02
    |              `--G. subelegans [=Endotrichella subelegans] SK02
    `--Hookeriineae SK02
         |--Hookeriaceae SK02
         |--Leucomium Mitt. 1868 [Leucomiaceae] SK02
         |    `--L. strumosum (Hornsch.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
         |--Hypopterygiaceae SK02
         |    |--Canalohypopterygium tamariscinum (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |--Cyathophorum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
         |    |    |--C. bulbosum (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1851 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |    `--C. splendidissimum D03
         |    |--Lopidium Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
         |    |    |--L. concinnum (Hooker) Wilson 1854 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |    |--L. nematosum (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1922 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |    `--L. struthiopteris (Brid.) Fleischer 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--Hypopterygium Brid. 1827 SK02
         |         |--H. arbuscula FHH01
         |         |--H. didictyon Müll.Hal. 1850 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |         |--H. discolor Mitt. 1867 [incl. H. scottiae Müll.Hal. 1868] SK02
         |         |--H. filiculaeforme M49b
         |         |--H. flexisetum D03
         |         |--H. rotulatum (Hedw.) Brid. 1827 (n. d.) SK02
         |         |--H. setigerum M49a
         |         |--H. tamarisci (Swartz) Brid. ex Müll.Hal. 1850 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |         `--H. thouinii D03
         `--Callicostaceae SK02
              |--Schizomitrium Schimp. 1851 (nom. rej.) SK02
              |--Sauloma (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860 SK02
              |    `--S. tenella (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Hookeriopsis (Besch.) Jaeger 1877 SK02
              |    |--H. luteo-rufescens J87
              |    `--H. utacamundiana (Montagne) Broth. 1907 SK02
              |--Cyclodictyon Mitt. 1864 SK02
              |    |--C. albicans J87
              |    |--C. blumeanum (Müll.Hal.) Kuntze 1891 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    `--C. varians J87
              |--Callicostella (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. 1859 SK02
              |    `--C. papillata (Montagne) Mitt. 1859 [=Schizomitrium papillatum (Montagne) Sull. 1859] SK02
              |         |--C. p. var. papillata [incl. Hookeria baileyi, C. bayleyi (Broth.) Kindb. 1891] SK02
              |         `--C. p. var. prabaktiana (Müll.Hal.) Streimann 1997 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              `--Callicosta J87
                   |--C. affinis J87
                   |--C. cristatum J87
                   `--C. fendleri J87

Nomina nuda: Endotrichella perrotii Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 [=Glyphothecium perrotii Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935] SK02
             Pilotrichum howei Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1888 SK02
             Pilotrichum whiteleggeanum Müll.Hal. ex Clarke 1973 SK02

Callicostella papillata var. prabaktiana (Müll.Hal.) Streimann 1997 [incl. C. kaernbachii Broth. ex Fleischer 1908, C. rugiseta Dixon 1942] SK02

Canalohypopterygium tamariscinum [=Hypopterygium tamariscinum (Hedw.) Brid. 1819, Pterygophyllum tamarisci, P. tamariscinum; incl. Hypopterygium commutatum Müll.Hal. 1850 (nom. illeg.), H. setigerum (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Cyathophorum bulbosum (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1851 [=Anictangium bulbosum, Hedwigia bulbosa; incl. Cyathophorum densirete, C. bulbosum var. minus (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1894, C. pennatum var. minus, Leskea pennata, C. pennatum (nom. illeg.), Hookeria pennata (nom. illeg.), C. pteridioides] SK02

Cyclodictyon blumeanum (Müll.Hal.) Kuntze 1891 [incl. Hookeria karsteniana, C. karstenianum, H. lepida, C. lepidum (Mitt.) Broth. & Watts 1918] SK02

Euptychium cuspidatum (Mitt.) Mitt. 1881 [=Esenbeckia cuspidata, Garovaglia cuspidata; incl. Euptychium neocaledonicum, Garovaglia neocaledonica (n. n.)] SK02

Garovaglia elegans var. dietrichiae (Müll.Hal.) During 1977 [=Endotrichella dietrichiae; incl. E. lepida, Garovaglia lepida, Neckera lepida (nom. inv.), E. dietrichiae var. longiseta] SK02

Glyphothecium sciuroides (Hooker) Hampe 1860 [=Leskea sciuroides, Cladomnion sciuroides, Garovaglia sciuroides, Glyptothecium sciuroides, Ptychothecium sciuroides (comb. inv.), Stereodon sciuroides; incl. Neckera glyphotheca, Garovaglia glyphotheca (nom. inv.), Glyphothecium muellerianum, Cladomnion muellerianum, Garovaglia muelleriana (nom. inv.), Ptychothecium muelleri (nom. inv.), Cladomnion tasmanicum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Hampeella pallens (Sande Lac.) Fleischer 1908 [incl. Lepidopilum australe, Sematophyllum australe (n. n.), Whiteleggea australis (nom. inv.), Hampeella kurzii] SK02

Hypopterygium didictyon
Müll.Hal. 1850 [incl. H. chrysopus (nom. inv.), H. novae-seelandiae var. glaucum, H. novae-seelandiae, H. smithianum, H. tasmanicum] SK02

Hypopterygium tamarisci (Swartz) Brid. ex Müll.Hal. 1850 [incl. H. rigidulum ssp. balantii Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1901, H. scottiae var. denticulatum, H. rotulatum var. incurvum Brid. 1827, H. muelleri Hampe 1856, Pterobryon muelleri, H. tenellum Müll.Hal. 1854, H. viridulum] SK02

Lopidium concinnum (Hooker) Wilson 1854 [=Leskea concinna, Hookeria concinna, Hypopterygium concinnum; incl. Hy. hyalinolimbatum (n. n.), Lopidium hyalinolimbatum (n. n.), Lo. pallens, Hypopterygium pallens] SK02

Lopidium nematosum (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1922 (n. d.) [=Hypopterygium struthiopteris ssp. nematosum] SK02

Lopidium struthiopteris (Brid.) Fleischer 1908 [=Hypopterygium struthiopteris; incl. H. daymannianum, L. daymannianum (Broth. & Geh.) Fleischer 1908, L. pinnatum Hampe 1874, Hypopterygium struthiopteris ssp. pinnatum, H. planatum (l. c.), Lopidium planatum (l. c.)] SK02

Ptychomnion aciculare (Brid.) Mitt. 1869 [=Hypnum aciculare, Achyrophyllum aciculare, Phycomium aciculare (nom. inv.), Stereodon acicularis; incl. Hypnum nigrum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Ptychomnion cygnisetum (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 [=Eurhynchium cygnisetum (n. n.), Ectropothecium cygnisetum (n. n.)] SK02

Sauloma tenella (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860 [=Hookeria tenella; incl. Hypnum lepidopiloides (nom. inv.), Hookeria zetterstedtii, Distichophyllum zetterstedtii, Homalia zetterstedtii, Sauloma zetterstedtii (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1879] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[M49a] Martin, W. 1949a. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257-277.

[M49b] Martin, W. 1949b. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355-360.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1-21.

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