Forficulida


The protelytropteran Protelytron permianum. Photo via ToLWeb.


Belongs within: Perlidea.
Contains: Archidermaptera, Neodermaptera.

The name Forficulida is used here as in Shcherbakov (2002) for the clade uniting the Dermaptera (earwigs) with the fossil, paraphyletic 'Protelytroptera'. First recorded from the Lower Permian, the forficulids are distinguished by having their forewings hardened, with the sutural margins overlapping in repose, and the hindwings transversely folded when closed. In the Dermaptera, the elytra are reduced so that they cover at most the base of the abdomen; Dermaptera also have intercalary fan veins in the hind wing and elongate cerci (Shcherbakov 2002).

<==Forficulida [Protelytrina, Protelytroptera]
    |  i. s.: Cordulagomphus santanensis Carle & Wighton 1990 NW03
    |         Allodahlia shanwangensis Zhou 1986 NW03
    |         Permelytropsis Tillyard 1924 Z02
    |         Cylindrogaster Stål 1855 PJ03
    |         Parisolabus forsteri PSV00
    |         Gonolabis electa GE05
    |--Archelytroidea S02
    |    |--Blattelytridae S02
    |    |--Elytroneura Carpenter 1933 Z02 [Elytroneuridae S02]
    |    |--Planelytridae S02
    |    `--Archelytridae S02
    |         |--Megelytridae S02
    |         `--Apachelytron [Apachelytridae, Archelytrinae] S02
    |              `--A. transversum S02
    `--+--Dermaptera [Forficulina] GE05
       |    |  i. s.: Labidurodes robustus B14
       |    |--Archidermaptera GE05
       |    `--Pandermaptera GE05
       |         |--Neodermaptera GE05
       |         `--Eodermaptera GE05
       |              |--Turanodermatidae GE05
       |              `--Semenoviola Z02 [Semenoviolidae GE05, Semenoviolinae]
       |                   `--S. obliquotruncata Martynov 1925 Z02
       `--Protelytroidea S02
            |--Dermelytridae S02
            |--Protelytron [Protelytridae] S02
            |    `--P. permianum Tillyard 1931 Z02
            |--Uralelytron Rohdendorf 1939 [incl. Bardacoleus Zalessky 1947; Bardacoleidae] S02
            |    |--U. insignis S02
            |    `--U. martynovi S02
            `--Permofulgoridae [Protocoleidae] S02
                 |  i. s.: Arctocoleus ivensis S02
                 |--Labidelytron Kukalová-Peck 1988 Z02 [Labidelytridae S02, Stenelytridae]
                 |--Protocoleus mitchelli Tillyard 1924 F71
                 |--Permophilus F71 [Permophilidae S02]
                 |    `--P. pincombei Tillyard 1924 F71
                 `--Permofulgor F71 [Permofulgorinae]
                      |--P. belmontensis Tillyard 1917 F71
                      `--P. indistinctus Tillyard 1922 F71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Burr, M. 1914. Les Dermaptères de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 315-324, pl. 9. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NW03] Nel, A., A. Waller, V. Albouy, J.-J. Menier & G. de Ploëg. 2003. New fossil earwigs from the lowermost Eocene amber of Paris Basin (France) (Insecta, Dermaptera, family incertae sedis). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 119-129.

[PSV00] Patrick, B. H., P. Sirvid & C. Vink. 2000. Obituary: Raymond Robert Forster D.Sc., F.E.S.N.Z., Q.S.O. 19 June 1922–1 July 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 23: 95-99. (18)

[PJ03] Poinar, G. O., T. A. Jackson, N. L. Bell & M. B. Wahid. 2003. Cylindrocorpus inevectus sp. n. associated with the oil palm weevil, Elaeidobius kamerunicus (Faust) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with a synopsis of the family Cylindrocorporidae and establishment of Longibuccidae n. fam. (Diplogastroidea: Nematoda). Nematology 5 (2): 183-190.

[S02] Shcherbakov, D. E. 2002. Order Forficulida Latreille, 1810. The earwigs and protelytropterans (=Dermaptera DeGeer, 1773 +Protelytroptera Tillyard, 1931). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 288-291. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zhang, J.-F. 2002. The most primitive earwigs (Archidermaptera, Dermaptera, Insecta) from the Upper Jurassic of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, northeastern China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 19 (4): 348-362.

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