Funariidae


Funaria hygrometrica, from here.


Belongs within: Musci.

The Funariidae are a clade of mosses including the orders Encalyptales and Funariales. The Funariidae are characterised by an arthrodontous peristome with diplolepidous-facing teeth, and also by the possession of a 71 kb inversion in the chloroplast genome (Wahrmund et al. 2010). Distinctive characters of the separate families include the presence of a massive, persistent calyptra covering the capsule in Encalyptaceae, a fleshy underground stem producing abundant short gametophore branches in Gigaspermaceae, and broad leaves with large pale laminal cells and distinctive stomata in Funariaceae (Bryophyte Flora of North America).

<==Funariidae
    |--Encalypta Hedw. 1801 [Encalyptaceae, Encalyptales] SK02
    |    |--E. ciliata Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |    |--E. novae-valesiae Hampe 1872 [=Pyramitrium novae-valesiae; incl. E. novae-cambriae (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |--E. streptocarpa N02
    |    `--E. vulgaris Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |         |--E. v. var. vulgaris [incl. E. australis, E. tasmanica] SK02
    |         `--E. v. var. mutica Brid. 1819 SK02
    `--Funariales SK02
         |--Gigaspermaceae SK02
         |    |--Lorentziella imbricata FHH01
         |    `--Gigaspermum Lindb. 1865 SK02
         |         `--G. repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--Funariaceae SK02
              |--Physcomitrella Bruch & Schimp. 1849 SK02
              |    `--P. patens (Hedw.) Schimp. 1849 SK02
              |         |--P. p. ssp. patens SK02
              |         `--P. p. ssp. readeri (Müll.Hal.) Tan 1979 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Funaria Hedw. 1801 SK02
              |    |--F. hygrometrica Hedw. 1801 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    |    |--F. h. var. hygrometrica D03
              |    |    `--F. h. var. fuegiana D03
              |    |--F. mediterranea GM96
              |    |--F. microstoma Bruch ex Schimp. 1840 [incl. F. salsicola Müll.Hal. 1902] SK02
              |    `--F. tateana (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Physcomitrium Brid. 1827 SK02
              |    |--P. brisbanicum Müll.Hal. 1872 SK02
              |    |--P. coorgense FHH01
              |    |--P. cyathicarpum Mitt. 1859 B05
              |    |--P. eurystomum Sendtn. 1841 [incl. P. acuminatum B.S.G. 1841] B05
              |    |--P. flaccidum Mitt. 1882 (n. d.) SK02
              |    |--P. indicum (Dix.) Gangulee 1969 [=Physcomitrellopsis indica (Dix.) Gupta 1933] B05
              |    |--P. integrifolium Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1853 (n. d.) [=P. firmum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
              |    |--P. minutulum Müll.Hal. 1872 (n. d.) SK02
              |    |--P. nodulifolium Mitt. 1882 (n. d.) SK02
              |    `--P. pyriforme (Hedw.) Hampe 1837 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              `--Entosthodon Schwägr. 1823 SK02
                   |--E. apophysatus (Taylor) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. laxus (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1856 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. muehlenbergii (Turner) Fife 1985 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. nutans Mitt. 1859 B05
                   |--E. productus Mitt. 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. smithhurstii (Broth. & Geh.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. subnudus (Taylor) Fife 1985 [=Funaria subnuda] SK02
                   |    |--E. s. var. subnudus [incl. Funaria helmsii Broth. & Geh. 1898, E. helmsii] SK02
                   |    |--E. s. var. gracilis (Hooker & Wilson) Fife 1985 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |    `--E. s. var. phymatodeus (Catches.) Fife & Seppelt 2001 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   `--E. wallichii N02

Nomina nuda: Entosthodon ampullaceus Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1899 [=Funaria ampullacea Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon brachycaulis Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria brachycaulis Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon campbelliae Broth. 1901 [=Funaria campbelliae Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon cuspidatus Kiaer ex Bailey 1886 SK02
             Entosthodon dissodontoides Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria dissodontoides Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon elatus Mitt. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Funaria elata Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon integerrimus Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Funaria integerrima Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon recurvipilis Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria recurvipila Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon vesiculifolius Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria vesiculifolia Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon woollsianus Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria woollsiana Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Eucalypta patagonica Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03
             Funaria flavicans Schwägr. ex Müll.Hal. 1845 SK02
             Funaria integrifolia Broth. 1906 SK02
             Funaria novae-valesiae Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Funaria pilifera Broth. ex Watts 1906 SK02
             Funaria subacaulis Hampe 1880 SK02
             Physcomitrium novae-valesiae Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Physcomitrium obconicum Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Physcomitrium torquescens Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Physcomitrium tryonii Broth. ex Bailey 1891 SK02

Entosthodon apophysatus (Taylor) Mitt. 1859 [=Gymnostomum apophysatum, Funaria apophysata (Taylor) Broth. 1903, Physcomitrium apophysatum, Amphoritheca taylorii (nom. illeg.), Entosthodon taylorii (nom. illeg.); incl. Funaria aristata Broth. 1893, E. aristatus, E. clavaeformis Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853, Amphoritheca clavaeformis, Funaria clavaeformis, F. taylorii (n. n.)] SK02

Entosthodon laxus
(Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1856 [=Funaria laxa, Physcomitrium laxum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1851; incl. Entosthodon subattenuatus (Broth.) Paris 1900] SK02

Entosthodon muehlenbergii (Turner) Fife 1985 [incl. Funaria glabra Taylor 1846, F. pulchridens Müll.Hal. 1886 (n. n.), F. tasmanica] SK02

Entosthodon productus Mitt. 1860 [=Funaria producta (Mitt.) Broth. 1903; incl. E. minuticaulis, F. minuticaulis (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906, F. perpusilla Broth. 1916] SK02

Entosthodon radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1848 [=Weissia radians, Bryum radians, Eremodon radians, Funaria radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1845; incl. F. acaulis Hampe 1860, F. crispula Hooker & Wilson 1859] SK02

Entosthodon smithhurstii (Broth. & Geh.) Paris 1896 [=Funaria smithhurstii Broth. & Geh. 1895; incl. F. squarrifolia Broth. 1898, Entosthodon squarrifolius] SK02

Entosthodon subnudus var. gracilis (Hooker & Wilson) Fife 1985 [=Funaria gracilis; incl. F. bullata, F. cuspidata, Entosthodon sullivanii (nom. inv.), F. sullivanii (n. n.), E. varius, F. varia (Mitt.) Broth. 1903] SK02


Entosthodon subnudus var. phymatodeus (Catches.) Fife & Seppelt 2001 [=Physcomitrium phymatodeum Catches. 1980, Funaria phymatodea (Catches.) Catches. 1993 (comb. inv.)] SK02

Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 1801 [incl. F. australis (nom. inv.), F. hygrometrica var. calvescens (Schwägr.) Montagne 1839, Tayloria henryae Dixon 1942, F. papillata Hampe 1876, F. hygrometrica var. sphaerocarpa (Müll.Hal.) Watts 1906] SK02

Funaria tateana (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Entosthodon tateanus Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1897, E. jateanus] SK02

Gigaspermum repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865 [=Anictangium repens, Anoectangium repens, Hedwigia repens, Leptangium repens, Physcomitrium repens, Schistidium repens; incl. Gigaspermum subrepens Müll.Hal. 1901, Leptangium tumidum, G. tumidum] SK02

Physcomitrella patens ssp. readeri (Müll.Hal.) Tan 1979 [=Ephemerella readeri (n. n.), Physcomitrium readeri, Physcomitridium readeri; incl. Physcomitrella austropatens] SK02

Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) Hampe 1837 [=Gymnostomum pyriforme; incl. P. conicum Mitt. 1859, P. subserratum Hampe 1860] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 11-42.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (6th ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Wahrmund, U., D. Quandt & V. Knoop. 2010. The phylogeny of mosses—addressing open issues with a new mitochondrial locus: group I intron cobi420. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (2): 417-426.

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