Funaria hygrometrica, from here.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.

The Funariidae are a clade of mosses including the orders Encalyptales and Funariales. The Funariidae are characterised by an arthrodontous peristome with diplolepidous-facing teeth, and also by the possession of a 71 kb inversion in the chloroplast genome (Wahrmund et al. 2010). Distinctive characters of the separate families include the presence of a massive, persistent calyptra covering the capsule in Encalyptaceae, a fleshy underground stem producing abundant short gametophore branches in Gigaspermaceae, and broad leaves with large pale laminal cells and distinctive stomata in Funariaceae (Bryophyte Flora of North America). Members of the Funariaceae include Discelium nudum and Nanomitrium tenerum, minute species growing from a persistent protonema (Dixon 1924).

    |--Encalypta Hedw. 1801 [Encalyptaceae, Encalyptales] SK02
    |    |  i. s.: E. apophysata D24
    |    |         E. novae-valesiae Hampe 1872 [=Pyramitrium novae-valesiae; incl. E. novae-cambriae (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |         E. procera D24
    |    |--E. subg. Psilotheca D24
    |    |    |--E. ciliata Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02 [=Leersia ciliata D24; incl. L. laciniata D24]
    |    |    |    |--E. c. var. ciliata D24
    |    |    |    `--E. c. var. subciliata D24
    |    |    |--E. commutata [incl. Leersia alpina] D24
    |    |    |    |--E. c. var. commutata D24
    |    |    |    `--E. c. var. imberbis D24
    |    |    `--E. vulgaris Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02
    |    |         |--E. v. var. vulgaris [incl. E. australis, E. tasmanica] SK02
    |    |         |--E. v. var. laevigata D24
    |    |         |--E. v. var. mutica Brid. 1819 SK02
    |    |         |--E. v. var. obtusifolia D24
    |    |         `--E. v. var. pilifera D24
    |    `--E. subg. Rhabdotheca D24
    |         |--E. rhabdocarpa [=Leersia rhabdocarpa] D24
    |         `--E. streptocarpa [incl. Leersia contorta] D24
    `--Funariales SK02
         |--Gigaspermaceae SK02
         |    |--Lorentziella imbricata FHH01
         |    `--Gigaspermum Lindb. 1865 SK02
         |         `--G. repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--Funariaceae SK02
              |--Discelium nudum [=Bryum nudum] D24
              |--Nanomitrium tenerum [=Ephemerum tenerum, Phascum tenerum] D24
              |--Physcomitrella Bruch & Schimp. 1849 SK02
              |    `--P. patens (Hedw.) Schimp. 1849 SK02 [=Phascum patens D24]
              |         |--P. p. ssp. patens SK02
              |         |--P. p. var. lucasiana D24
              |         `--P. p. ssp. readeri (Müll.Hal.) Tan 1979 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Funaria Hedw. 1801 SK02
              |    |--F. calcarea [incl. F. hibernica, F. muehlengergii] D24
              |    |    |--F. c. var. calcarea D24
              |    |    `--F. c. var. patula D24
              |    |--F. hygrometrica Hedw. 1801 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |    |--F. h. var. hygrometrica D03
              |    |    `--F. h. var. fuegiana D03
              |    |--F. mediterranea GM96
              |    |--F. microstoma Bruch ex Schimp. 1840 [incl. F. salsicola Müll.Hal. 1902] SK02
              |    `--F. tateana (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Physcomitrium Brid. 1827 SK02
              |    |--P. acuminatum H04
              |    |--P. brisbanicum Müll.Hal. 1872 SK02
              |    |--P. coorgense FHH01
              |    |--P. cyathicarpum Mitt. 1859 B05
              |    |--P. ericetorum H04
              |    |--P. eurystomum Sendtn. 1841 [incl. P. acuminatum B.S.G. 1841] B05
              |    |--P. flaccidum Mitt. 1882 (n. d.) SK02
              |    |--P. indicum (Dix.) Gangulee 1969 [=Physcomitrellopsis indica (Dix.) Gupta 1933] B05
              |    |--P. integrifolium Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1853 (n. d.) [=P. firmum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
              |    |--P. minutulum Müll.Hal. 1872 (n. d.) SK02
              |    |--P. nodulifolium Mitt. 1882 (n. d.) SK02
              |    |--P. pyriforme (Hedw.) Hampe 1837 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--P. sphaericum [=Gymnostomum sphaericum] D24
              |    `--P. tetragonum [=Pyramidula tetragona] D24
              `--Entosthodon Schwägr. 1823 SK02
                   |--E. apophysatus (Taylor) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. ericetorum [=Funaria ericetorum, Gymnostomum ericetorum; incl. F. obtusa] D24
                   |--‘Funaria’ fascicularis [=Bryum fasciculare, Physcomitrium fasciculare] D24
                   |--E. laxus (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1856 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. muehlenbergii (Turner) Fife 1985 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. nutans Mitt. 1859 B05
                   |--E. productus Mitt. 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. smithhurstii (Broth. & Geh.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. subnudus (Taylor) Fife 1985 [=Funaria subnuda] SK02
                   |    |--E. s. var. subnudus [incl. Funaria helmsii Broth. & Geh. 1898, E. helmsii] SK02
                   |    |--E. s. var. gracilis (Hooker & Wilson) Fife 1985 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |    `--E. s. var. phymatodeus (Catches.) Fife & Seppelt 2001 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--E. templetoni [=Funaria templetoni; incl. F. attenuata] D24
                   `--E. wallichii N02

Nomina nuda: Entosthodon ampullaceus Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1899 [=Funaria ampullacea Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon brachycaulis Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria brachycaulis Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon campbelliae Broth. 1901 [=Funaria campbelliae Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon cuspidatus Kiaer ex Bailey 1886 SK02
             Entosthodon dissodontoides Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria dissodontoides Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon elatus Mitt. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Funaria elata Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon integerrimus Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Funaria integerrima Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon recurvipilis Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria recurvipila Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon vesiculifolius Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria vesiculifolia Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Entosthodon woollsianus Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Funaria woollsiana Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Eucalypta patagonica Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03
             Funaria flavicans Schwägr. ex Müll.Hal. 1845 SK02
             Funaria integrifolia Broth. 1906 SK02
             Funaria novae-valesiae Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Funaria pilifera Broth. ex Watts 1906 SK02
             Funaria subacaulis Hampe 1880 SK02
             Physcomitrium novae-valesiae Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Physcomitrium obconicum Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Physcomitrium torquescens Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Physcomitrium tryonii Broth. ex Bailey 1891 SK02

Entosthodon apophysatus (Taylor) Mitt. 1859 [=Gymnostomum apophysatum, Funaria apophysata (Taylor) Broth. 1903, Physcomitrium apophysatum, Amphoritheca taylorii (nom. illeg.), Entosthodon taylorii (nom. illeg.); incl. Funaria aristata Broth. 1893, E. aristatus, E. clavaeformis Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853, Amphoritheca clavaeformis, Funaria clavaeformis, F. taylorii (n. n.)] SK02

Entosthodon laxus
(Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1856 [=Funaria laxa, Physcomitrium laxum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. 1851; incl. Entosthodon subattenuatus (Broth.) Paris 1900] SK02

Entosthodon muehlenbergii (Turner) Fife 1985 [incl. Funaria glabra Taylor 1846, F. pulchridens Müll.Hal. 1886 (n. n.), F. tasmanica] SK02

Entosthodon productus Mitt. 1860 [=Funaria producta (Mitt.) Broth. 1903; incl. E. minuticaulis, F. minuticaulis (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906, F. perpusilla Broth. 1916] SK02

Entosthodon radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1848 [=Weissia radians, Bryum radians, Eremodon radians, Funaria radians (Hedw.) Müll.Hal. 1845; incl. F. acaulis Hampe 1860, F. crispula Hooker & Wilson 1859] SK02

Entosthodon smithhurstii (Broth. & Geh.) Paris 1896 [=Funaria smithhurstii Broth. & Geh. 1895; incl. F. squarrifolia Broth. 1898, Entosthodon squarrifolius] SK02

Entosthodon subnudus var. gracilis (Hooker & Wilson) Fife 1985 [=Funaria gracilis; incl. F. bullata, F. cuspidata, Entosthodon sullivanii (nom. inv.), F. sullivanii (n. n.), E. varius, F. varia (Mitt.) Broth. 1903] SK02

Entosthodon subnudus var. phymatodeus (Catches.) Fife & Seppelt 2001 [=Physcomitrium phymatodeum Catches. 1980, Funaria phymatodea (Catches.) Catches. 1993 (comb. inv.)] SK02

Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 1801 SK02 [=Mnium hygrometricum D24; incl. F. australis (nom. inv.) SK02, F. hygrometrica var. calvescens (Schwägr.) Montagne 1839 SK02, Tayloria henryae Dixon 1942 SK02, F. papillata Hampe 1876 SK02, F. hygrometrica var. sphaerocarpa (Müll.Hal.) Watts 1906 SK02]

Funaria tateana (Müll.Hal. ex Geh.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Entosthodon tateanus Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1897, E. jateanus] SK02

Gigaspermum repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865 [=Anictangium repens, Anoectangium repens, Hedwigia repens, Leptangium repens, Physcomitrium repens, Schistidium repens; incl. Gigaspermum subrepens Müll.Hal. 1901, Leptangium tumidum, G. tumidum] SK02

Physcomitrella patens ssp. readeri (Müll.Hal.) Tan 1979 [=Ephemerella readeri (n. n.), Physcomitrium readeri, Physcomitridium readeri; incl. Physcomitrella austropatens] SK02

Physcomitrium pyriforme (Hedw.) Hampe 1837 SK02 [=Bryum pyriforme D24, Gymnostomum pyriforme SK02; incl. P. conicum Mitt. 1859 SK02, P. subserratum Hampe 1860 SK02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 11–42.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis 6th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Wahrmund, U., D. Quandt & V. Knoop. 2010. The phylogeny of mosses—addressing open issues with a new mitochondrial locus: group I intron cobi420. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (2): 417-426.

Last updated: 28 December 2017.

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