Thuidium tamariscinum, photographed by Carl Farmer.

Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Thuidiaceae are a family of mosses, including a number of species forming carpets on forest floors. The family is cosmopolitan, but has its highest diversity in the Asian region. Circumscription of Thuidiaceae relative to the closely-related Leskeaceae is currently uncertain, and the two may not be maintainable as separate families. The type genus, Thuidium, includes relatively large, dioicous mosses with abundant, 2- or 3-pinnate paraphyllia.

Characters (from García-Avila et al. 2009): pinnate gametophyte covered by abundant paraphyllia (linear or ramified); foliar dimorphism between stem and branches; papillae on leaf and paraphyllia cells, sometimes on setae; perfect hypnaceous peristome.

    |--+--Abietinella abietina VH02
    |  `--Helodium blandowii VH02
    `--+--Haplocladium VH02
       |    |--H. microphyllum J87
       |    `--H. virginianum VH02
       `--Thuidium Bruch & Schimp. 1899 VH02, SK02
            |--T. abietinum [=Hypnum abietinum] D24
            |--T. blandovii [=Hypnum blandovii] D24
            |--T. cymbifolium (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1865 (see below for synonymy) SK02
            |--T. delicatulum VH02 [=Hypnum delicatulum D24]
            |--T. hystricosum D24
            |--T. laeviusculum (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 [=Leskea laeviuscula, Hypnum laeviusculum (preoc.)] SK02
            |--T. minutulum J87
            |--T. philiberti D24
            |--T. plumulosum (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1865 (see below for synonymy) SK02
            |--T. recognitum (Hedw.) Lindb. 1874 [=Hypnum recognitum] SK02
            |--T. samoanum B57
            |--T. sparsifolium N02
            |--T. squarrosulum N02
            |--T. subglaucinum Cardot 1911 SK02
            |--T. tamariscinum FHH01 [=Hypnum tamariscinum D24; incl. T. tamariscifolium D24]
            `--T. urceolatum J87

Thuidiaceae incertae sedis:
  Pelekium Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |--P. bonianum (Besch.) Touw 2001 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--P. gratum (Palisot de Beauvois) Touw 2001 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--P. investe (Mitt.) Touw 2001 SK02
    |--P. synoicum (Touw) Touw 2001 [=Thuidium synoicum Touw 1989] SK02
    `--P. velatum Mitt. 1868 [=Thuidium velatum (Mitt.) Paris 1898] SK02
  Thuidiopsis (Broth.) Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |--T. furfurosa (Hooker & Wilson) Fleischer 1923 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--T. sparsa (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1925 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--T. s. var. sparsa SK02
         `--‘Thuidium sparsum’ var. hastatum (Mitt.) Touw & Falter-van den Haak 1989 (see below for synonymy) SK02

Nomina nuda: Thuidium corralense Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03
             Thuidium rubens Mitt. 1882 SK02

Pelekium bonianum (Besch.) Touw 2001 [=Thuidium bonianum Besch. 1887; incl. T. trachypodioides Broth. & Watts 1915] SK02

Pelekium gratum (Palisot de Beauvois) Touw 2001 [incl. Thuidium erosulum, T. kuripanum (Dozy & Molk.) Wanatabe 1987] SK02

Thuidiopsis furfurosa (Hooker & Wilson) Fleischer 1923 [=Hypnum furfurosum, Thuidium furfurosum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870; incl. H. fulvastrum, Thuidium furfurosum var. fulvastrum (Mitt.) Dixon 1929] SK02

Thuidiopsis sparsa (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1925 [=Hypnum sparsum, Thuidiopsis furfurosa var. sparsa, Thuidium furfurosum var. sparsum (Hooker & Wilson) Sainsbury 1952, Thuidium sparsum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870; incl. Thuidium atrovirens Broth. 1899, Thuidium suberectum var. byssoides (n. n.), Thuidium erectum Hampe 1877, Thuidium incompletopinnatum Müll.Hal. in Weymouth 1895 (n. n.), Thuidium liliputanum Broth. 1900, Thuidiopsis liliputana (Broth.) Broth. 1925, Thuidium obtusirameum Broth. ex Bailey 1890 (n. n.), Thuidium pallidolimbatum Broth. ex Bailey 1890 (n. n.), Thuidium squallidiusculum Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 (n. n.), Hypnum suberectum, Thuidiopsis suberecta, Thuidium suberectum, Thuidium subliliputanae Broth. ex Watts 1899 (n. n.), Hypnum unguiculatum, Thuidium unguiculatum] SK02

Thuidium cymbifolium (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1865 [incl. Hypnum amblystegioides Müll.Hal. 1882, T. amblystegioides (n. n.), T. amblystoides (l. c.), Cyrtohypnum nanodelicatulum, Hypnum nanodelicatulum, Thuidium nanodelicatulum (Hampe) Jaeger 1878, T. pennula (n. n.), Cyrtohypnum plumulosiforme, Hypnum plumulosiforme, Thuidium plumulosiforme (Hampe) Jaeger 1878, T. plumuliforme (l. c.), T. protensulum Müll.Hal. 1908] SK02

Thuidium plumulosum (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 1865 [incl. T. meyenianum (Hampe) Dozy & Molk. 1865, T. ramentosum] SK02

‘Thuidium sparsum’ var. hastatum (Mitt.) Touw & Falter-van den Haak 1989 [=Leskea hastata, Hypnum hastatum (preoc.), Thuidiopsis hastata, Thuidium bastatum (l. c.); incl. Hypnum stuartii, Thuidiopsis stuartii, Thuidium stuartii (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1878] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

García-Avila, D., E. De Luna & A. E. Newton. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of the Thuidiaceae and the non-monophyly of the Thuidiaceae and the Leskeaceae based on rbcL, rps4 and the rps4-trnS intergenic spacer. Bryologist 112 (1): 80-93.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

Last updated: 7 January 2018.

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