Adult of Stenoperla prasina. Photo from here.

Belongs within: Plecoptera.

The name Grypopterygomorpha was used by Sinitshenkova (2002) for a clade of stoneflies including the modern Antarctoperlaria and its fossil relatives. Modern Antarctoperlaria are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, but stem grypopterygomorphs were more widespread with the Siberioperlidae found in Siberia and Mongolia (Sinitshenkova 2002). The Antarctoperlaria are united by the presence of a sternal rather than tergal depressor muscle for the fore trochanter (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Eustheniidae retain remnants of the lateral abdominal gills into adulthood (Theischinger 1991).

Characters (from Sinitshenkova 2002): Wing with abundant cross-veins; trochanter lacking tergal depressor; nymph with thoracic and abdominal gills.

<==Grypopterygomorpha S02
    |--Euxenoperlidae GE05
    |    |--Euxenoperla simplex RJ93
    |    `--Gondwanoperlidium argentinarum RJ93
    |--Siberioperlidae GE05
    |    |--Siberioperla S02
    |    |    |--S. lacunosa S02
    |    |    `--S. scobloi S02
    |    `--Flexoperla flexuosa RJ93
    `--Antarctoperlaria GE05
         |--Eusthenioidea [Archiperlaria] T91
         |    |--Diamphipnoa TW05 [Diamphipnoidae GE05]
         |    |    `--D. virecentipennis TW05
         |    `--Eustheniidae GE05
         |         |  i. s.: Stenoperlidium S02
         |         |           |--S. permianum S02
         |         |           `--S. triassicum Riek 1956 F71
         |         |         Eustheniopsis R70
         |         |--Eustheniinae T91
         |         |    |--Eusthenia spectabilis N74
         |         |    `--Thaumatoperla T91
         |         `--Stenoperla [Stenoperlinae] T91
         |              |--S. denise T91
         |              |--S. kuna T91
         |              |--S. maclellani TW05
         |              `--S. prasina PC66
         `--Gripopterygoidea T91
              |--Austroperlidae [Penturoperlidae] GE05
              |    |--Austroperla cyrene TW05
              |    |--Tasmanoperla ZS10
              |    |--Austroheptura T91
              |    |--Austropentura T91
              |    |--Acruroperla T91
              |    `--Crypturoperla T91
              `--Gripopterygidae GE05
                   |--Zelandoperla maculata PC66
                   |--Aucklandobius trivacuata PC66
                   |--Apteroperla DGH93
                   |--Holcoperla DGH93
                   |--Trinotoperla nivata TW05
                   |--Dinotoperla bassae ZS10, T91
                   |--Eunotoperla P07
                   |--Illiesoperla P07
                   |--Riekoperla darlingtoni T91
                   |--Notoperla T91
                   |--Dundundra T91
                   |--Neboissoperla T91
                   |--Nescioperla T91
                   |--Cardioperla T91
                   |--Kirrama T91
                   |--Leptoperla T91
                   |--Newmanoperla T91
                   `--Eodinotoperla duncanae Jell & Duncan 1986 RJ93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437–442.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[N74] Norris, K. R. 1974. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 21–24.Melbourne University Press.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[P07] Proctor, H. C. 2007. Aquatic mites in assessments of stream invertebrate diversity. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 105–117. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Plecoptera (stoneflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 314–322. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Order Perlida Latreille, 1810. The stoneflies (=Plecoptera Burmeister, 1839). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 281–287. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[T91] Theischinger, G. 1991. Plecoptera (stoneflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 311–319. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 2 February 2019.

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