Campylopus introflexus, from here.

Belongs within: Dicranaceae.

Campylopus is a large genus of mosses found worldwide, with their highest diversity in mountainous regions of southern and tropical parts of the world. They are often robust and grow in wide patches, with relatively straight, rigid leaves (Dixon 1924). Species of the genus are often morphologically variable, making identification difficult. Features of the costa are often significant for identification.

Characters (from Frahm 2004, Bryophyte Flora of North America): Plants 3–10 cm or more. Stems usually simple, not tomentose or with dense reddish or whitish tomentum. Leaves 3–12 mm, erect patent or appressed foliate, narrowly lanceolate, ending in a smooth or denticulate, straight or reflexed tip; alar cells large, inflated, hyaline or reddish brown, or not differentiated; basal laminal cells thin-walled, hyaline, or thick-walled, chlorophyllose, sometimes with pitted walls, rectangular to subquadrate; distal laminal cell walls incrassate, quadrate to short-rectangular, oblique, or oval to elongate oval; costa strong, filling 1/3–4/5 of leaf width, excurrent in a more or less long, chlorophyllose or hyaline awn, in transverse section showing a median band of deuters, a adaxial layer of hyalocysts, substereids or stereids and abaxially layers of stereid or non-stereid cells and a abaxial row of chlorocysts; abaxial side of the costa smooth, ridged or lamellose. Specialized asexual reproduction by brood leaves, microphyllous branches, deciduous leaves or stem tips or rhizoidal tubers. Sexual condition dioicous. Perichaetia terminal, often bud like, rarely pseudolateral; perichaetial leaves with a broader, sheathing base and a long, narrow subula. Seta 5–10 mm, those of young sporophytes curved downward, pushing the immature capsule between the comal leaves and leaving the calyptra behind when the mature capsule curves upward, sinuose, twisted, cygneous when wet and performing uncoiling movements. Capsule erect and symmetric or curved and asymmetric, sometimes strumose, furrowed when empty; annulus present but not dehiscent; operculum rostrate, half as long as the capsule; peristome teeth divided to the middle in two prongs, reddish or orange and horizontally striate proximally, hyaline and papillose distally. Spores ca. 13 µm, smooth or papillose. Calyptra cucullate, ciliate or entire at base.

<==Campylopus Brid. 1819 SK02
    |--C. acuminatus Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |--C. a. var. acuminatus [incl. C. kirkii var. pilosus Frahm 1981] SK02
    |    `--C. a. var. kirkii (Mitt.) Frahm 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--C. adustus D24
    |--C. alpigena N02
    |--C. atrovirens [incl. C. fergussonii, C. longipilus, C. perplexans] D24
    |    |--C. a. var. atrovirens D24
    |    |--C. a. var. falcatus D24
    |    |--C. a. var. gracilis Dixon 1902 D24
    |    `--C. a. var. muticus [incl. C. atrovirens var. epilosus] D24
    |--C. australis Catches. & Frahm 1985 [incl. C. angustilimbatus (preoc.)] SK02
    |--C. bicolor (Hornsch. ex Müll.Hal.) Wilson 1854 [=Dicranum bicolor] SK02
    |    |--C. b. var. bicolor [incl. C. caducipilus, C. subbicolor Geh. & Broth. 1901 (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |--C. b. var. atroluteus [=C. atroluteus (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02
    |    `--C. b. var. ericeticola (Müll.Hal.) Dixon 1923 [incl. C. davalianus] SK02
    |--C. boswellii (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 SK02
    |--C. brevipilus [incl. C. fulvo-viridis, C. pelidnus] D24
    |    |--C. b. var. brevipilus D24
    |    `--C. b. var. auriculatus [incl. C. (Trachypogon) aurescens] D24
    |--C. brunneus (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 (n. d.) [=Dicranum brunneum] SK02
    |--C. capillaceus [incl. C. holomitrium (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |--C. capitulatus J87
    |--C. catarractilis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 SK02
    |--C. chilensis De Not. 1859 [incl. C. flavonigritus Dusén 1905, C. subappressifolius] SK02
    |--C. circinatus Frahm 1998 SK02
    |--C. clavatus (Brown) Wilson 1854 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--C. clemensiae Bartram 1962 SK02
    |--C. cockaynii R.Br.bis 1897 (n. d.) SK02
    |--C. comosus (Schwägr.) Bosch & Sande Lac. 1858 SK02
    |--C. crassissimus D03
    |--C. cubensis J87
    |--C. densifolius Ångström 1872 [=C. hawaiicus var. densifolius] SK02
    |--C. dietrichiae SK02
    |--C. ericoides (Griff.) Jaeger 1872 [incl. C. involutus (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1872] SK02
    |--C. flavissimus D03
    |--C. flexuosus (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. f. var. flexuosus SK02
    |    |--C. f. var. paradoxus [incl. C. leucophaeus, C. obtectus, C. rubiginosus] D24
    |    |--C. f. var. uliginosus [incl. C. flexuosus var. paludisus] D24
    |    `--C. f. var. zonatus (Molendo) Anzi 1877 SK02 [incl. C. flexuosus var. major D24]
    |--C. flindersii Catches. & Frahm 1985 [incl. C. austrosubulatus] SK02
    |--C. fragilis (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. 1847 SK02 [=Bryum fragile D24; incl. C. citrescens D24, C. densus D24]
    |--C. haitensis J87
    |--C. homalobolax (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 [=Dicranum homalobolax] SK02
    |--C. incrassatus Müll.Hal. 1845 [incl. C. flavoviridis Dusén 1905] SK02
    |--C. introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--C. i. var. introflexus SK02
    |    `--C. i. var. polytrichoides [incl. C. pilifer] SK02
    |--C. laetus N02
    |--C. laniger D03
    |--C. laxitextus Sande Lac. 1872 SK02
    |--C. laxoventralis Herzog ex Frahm 1979 SK02
    |--C. milleri N02
    |--C. modestus Cardot 1905 SK02
    |--C. morenoi D03
    |--C. perincanus D03
    |--C. purpureocaulis Dusén 1905 [incl. C. arboricola Cardot & Dixon 1923] SK02
    |--C. pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. 1826 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. richardii SK02
    |--C. robillardei Besch. 1878 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--C. saddleanus D03
    |--C. samoanus B57
    |--C. schimperi D24
    |--C. schmidii (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1872 SK02
    |--C. schwarzii [incl. C. purpurascens, C. symplectus] D24
    |    |--C. s. var. schwarzii D24
    |    `--C. s. var. hunti D24
    |--C. setifolius [incl. C. porophorus] D24
    |    |--C. s. var. setifolius D24
    |    `--C. s. var. intermedius D24
    |--C. shawii [incl. C. shawii var. rufulus] D24
    |    |--C. s. var. shawii D24
    |    `--C. s. var. hamatus D24
    |--C. sinensis (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1997 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--C. spegazzinii D03
    |--C. subulatus [incl. C. brevifolius, Dicranum expallidum, C. fusco-luteus] D24
    |--C. umbellatus (Schwägr. & Gaudichaud ex Arnott) Paris 1894 [incl. C. geniculatus (preoc.)] SK02
    `--C. underwoodii J87

Nomina nuda: Campylopus depilis Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Campylopus martensi Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Campylopus microgaster Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Campylopus occultoviridis Dusén 1903 D03
             Campylopus patagonicus Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03
             Campylopus sordidonigritus Dusén 1903 D03
             Campylopus subcapillatus Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Campylopus sulphureo-nigritus Dusén 1903 D03

Campylopus acuminatus var. kirkii (Mitt.) Frahm 1987 [=C. kirkii Mitt. 1981, Dicranum kirkii (nom. inv.); incl. C. denticuspis (preoc.), C. denticuspis var. lutescens, Dicnemon moorei (n. n.), Dicnemos moorei (l. c.), Dicranum nigroflavum, Campylopus nigroflavus] SK02

Campylopus clavatus (Brown) Wilson 1854 [=Dicranum clavatum; incl. C. appressifolius, C. insititius, C. insidiosus (l. c.), Dicranum insititium (comb. inv.), C. rodwayi] SK02

Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 SK02 [=Bryum flexuosum D24, Dicranum flexuosum SK02; incl. Campylopus crenulatus D24, C. melaphanus D24, C. subcinereus D24, C. wattsii Broth. 1918 SK02]

Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. 1819 [=Dicranum introflexum, Thysanomitrion introflexum; incl. Campylopus australiensis, C. erythropoma, C. introflexus var. genuinus, Dicranum leptocephalum, C. leptocephalus, D. pudicum, C. introflexus ssp. pudicus (Hornsch. ex Müll.Hal.) Dixon 1923, D. senex, C. senex, C. tasmanicus] SK02

Campylopus pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. 1826 SK02 [=Dicranum pyriforme D24; incl. D. antipodum Hampe 1880 (n. n.) SK02, Campylopus capillatus SK02, D. capillatum SK02, C. woollsii var. cylindrica Paris 1900 SK02, C. intorquatus var. flavifolius (n. n.) SK02, C. subtorquatus var. flavifolius (n. n.) SK02, C. intorquatus (n. n.) SK02, C. lenormandii SK02, C. novae-valesiae SK02, C. pallidus SK02, C. subtorquatus (n. n.) SK02, C. torfaceus SK02, Dicranum torfaceum SK02, C. torquatus SK02, D. torquatum SK02, C. whiteleggei (n. n.) SK02, D. woollsii SK02, Campylopus woollsii (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900 SK02, C. woollsianus (l. c.) SK02]

Campylopus robillardei Besch. 1878 [incl. C. brassii Bartram 1952, C. inchangae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900, C. perauriculatus Broth. 1900, C. robillardei var. perauriculatus (Broth.) Frahm 1987] SK02

Campylopus sinensis (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1997 [incl. C. eberhardtii Paris 1908, C. excurrens Dixon 1941, C. japonicus Broth. 1899] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 21 December 2017.

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