Naticidae


Naticarius alapapilionis, photographed by Neville Coleman.


Belongs within: Littorinimorpha.
Contains: Uber, Natica, Polinices, Euspira.

The Naticidae, moon shells, are carnivorous intertidal marine gastropods. Their name comes from the globular shiny shell of most species, though Ectosinum, at least, is flattened and ear-shaped (Wilson & Gillett 1971). In life, the shell is covered or nearly covered by the expanded foot, and the animal moves just below the surface of the sand in which it lives, leaving a visible trail. Moon shells are predators of other molluscs, using their radula (assisted by acid secretions) to bore a neat hole through the shell of their prey.

Characteristics (based on Woodward & Tate 1868): Shell usually globular with few walls; spire small, obtuse; aperture D-shaped. Proboscis long, retractile; radula with rhachis single-toothed and three uncini (lateral teeth). Foot very large; mantle lobes largely developed, covering more or less of the shell.

<==Naticidae [Anoperculatae, Naticacea, Naticoidea, Sinidae]
    |  i. s.: Mamillaria Swainson 1840 WG71
    |           `--M. powisiana Recluz 1844 WG71
    |         Notocochlis Powell 1933 WG71
    |           |--N. gualteriana (Recluz 1844) BW09
    |           `--N. sagittata Menke 1843 WG71
    |         Sigaretotrema Sacco 1890 WG71
    |           `--S. umbilicata Quoy & Gaimard 1833 WG71
    |         Ectosinum Iredale 1931 WG71
    |           `--E. zonale Quoy & Gaimard 1833 WG71
    |         Uber F27a
    |         Amauropsella F27a
    |         Lunatia F27b
    |           |--L. approximata (Etheridge & Bell in Harmer 1919) (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |           `--L. pila GAS03
    |         Naricava Hedley 1913 [incl. Micreschara] F27a
    |           |--*N. angasi [=Adeorbis angasi] F27b
    |           `--N. huttoni (Marwick 1924) (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |         Amauropsis Morch 1857 O27
    |           |--*A. canaliculata [=Natica canaliculata] O27
    |           `--A. purpurea Dall 1871 O27
    |         Naticarius Duméril 1806 WG71
    |           |--N. alapapilionis Röding 1798 WG71
    |           `--N. oncus Röding 1798 [incl. N. chinensis Lamarck 1822] WG71
    |         Carinacca Marwick 1924 F27a
    |           |--*C. waihaoensis [=Ampullina waihaoensis] F27a
    |           |--C. allani [=Natica allani] A27
    |           `--C. haasti [=Natica haasti] A27
    |         Bulbus Brown 1839 [incl. Acrybia Adams & Adams 1853] O27
    |           |--*B. flavus [=Natica flava] O27
    |           `--B. fragilis (Leach 1819) O27
    |                |--B. f. fragilis O27
    |                `--B. f. apertus Lovèn in Middendorff 1851 O27
    |         Magnatica Marwick 1924 F27a
    |           |--M. (Magnatica) F27b
    |           |    |--*M. (M.) planispira (Suter 1917) (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |           |    `--M. (M.) approximata (Suter 1917) (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |           `--M. (Spelaenacca Finlay 1926) F27a
    |                `--M. (*S.) altior Finlay 1926 F27a
    |         Friginatica [incl. Sulconacca Marwick 1924] F27a
    |           |--*F. beddomei (Johnston 1884) [=Natica beddomei] F27a
    |           |--F. aldingensis (Tate 1893) DK08
    |           |--F. pisum Hedley 1916 F27a
    |           |--F. polita Ten.-Woods 1875 F27a
    |           |--F. prisca A27
    |           |--F. suturalis (Hutton 1877) [=Lunatia suturalis] F27a
    |           `--F. vaughani [=*Sulconacca vaughani] F27a
    |         Cochlis Bolten 1798 P27
    |           |--*C. albula P27
    |           |--C. australis (Hutton 1878) (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |           |--‘Natica’ marochiensis P27
    |           |--C. migratoria Powell 1927 P27
    |           |--C. notocenica [=Natica notocenica] F27a
    |           |--C. praeconsors [=Natica praeconsors] F27a
    |           |--C. socius Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |           `--C. zelandica [=Natica zelandica] F27a
    |         Tanea zelandica HS01
    |         Propesinum umbilicatum M54
    |         Euspirocrommium Sacco 1890 DK08
    |           |--E. effusa (Tate 1893) DK08
    |           `--E. levesquei DK08
    |--Globisinum Marwick 1924 [Globisininae] BR05
    |    |--*G. drewi [=Sigaretus drewi] F27a
    |    |--G. crassiliratum Finlay 1926 F27a
    |    |--G. elegans A27
    |    |--G. miocaenicum A27
    |    |--G. pritchardi (Cossmann 1907) [=Natica pritchardi, N. arata Tate 1893 non Morris & Lycett 1854] F27b
    |    |--G. undulatum [=Ampullina undulata] F27a
    |    |--G. venustum [=Ampullina venusta] F27a
    |    `--G. wollastoni Finlay 1927 [=Sigaretus undulatus Hutton 1885 nec Lischke 1872 nec Martin 1885] F27b
    |--Naticinae BR05
    |    |--Natica BR05
    |    |--Polinices BR05
    |    |--Euspira BR05
    |    |--Choristes Carpenter in Dawson 1872 BR05, ICZN03 [Choristacea, Choristeidae]
    |    |    `--*C. elegans Carpenter in Dawson 1872 ICZN03
    |    |--Eunaticina Fischer 1885 [Eunaticini, Eunaticinini] BR05
    |    |    |--*E. papilla [=Sigaretus papilla] O27
    |    |    `--E. oldroydii Dall 1897 O27
    |    `--Mammilla Schumacher 1817 [Mammillinae] BR05
    |         |--M. opaca Recluz 1851 WG71
    |         |--M. sebae Souleyet 1844 WG71
    |         `--M. simiae Deshayes 1838 WG71
    `--Sininae BR05
         |--Cryptostomus Blainville 1818 [Cryptostomidae] BR05
         |--Sigaretus Lamarck 1799 [Adeloderma, Schismatobranchia, Sigaretidae, Sigaretinae] BR05
         |    |--S. australis Dunker 1871 H09
         |    |--S. carinatus Muenster in Goldfuss 1844 F27b
         |    |--S. eximius Reeve 1864 H09
         |    `--S. planulatus H09
         `--Sinum Röding 1798 BR05
              |--*S. neritoides [=Sigaretus neritoides] O27
              |--S. californicum Oldroyd 1917 O27
              |--S. debile Gould 1852 O27
              |--S. fornicatum A27
              |--S. keratium Dall 1919 O27
              |--S. martini Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27b
              `--S. pazianum Dall 1919 O27

Cochlis australis (Hutton 1878) [=Lunatia australis, Natica australis nec Bosc 1801 nec d’Orbigny 1842, N. maoria Finlay 1924] F27b

Cochlis socius
Finlay 1927 [=Natica consortis (l. c.) Finlay 1924 nec N. multipunctata var. consors Wood 1848 nec N. consors Dall 1909] F27b

Lunatia approximata
(Etheridge & Bell in Harmer 1919) [=Natica (Lunatia) approximata non Turbo (Marmorostoma) approximata Suter 1917 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)] F27b

Magnatica
(Magnatica) approximata (Suter 1917) [=Turbo (Marmorostoma) approximata, Natica (Mag.) approximata] F27b

*Magnatica (Magnatica) planispira (Suter 1917) [=Polinices planispirus non Natica planispira Phillips 1836 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.), N. (Magnatica) suteri Marwick 1924] F27b

Naricava huttoni
(Marwick 1924) [=Micreschara (Macromphalina) huttoni, Sigaretus carinatus Hutton 1877 non Muenster in Goldfuss 1844] F27b

Sinum martini Finlay 1927 [=Sigaretus undulatus Martin 1885 nec Lischke 1872 nec Hutton 1885; incl. Natica (Ampullina) laevis Hutton 1885 non N. laevis Weerth 1884] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265-309.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BW09] Bryce, C. & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177-208.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217-246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320-485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995-2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284-295.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[ICZN03] ICZN. 2003. Choristidae Verrill, 1882 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Spelling emended to Choristeidae, so removing the homonymy with Choristidae Esben-Petersen, 1915 (Insecta, Mecoptera). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60 (3): 224-225.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In The Archipelago of the Recherche (J. M. Willis, ed.) pp. 55-63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P27] Powell, A. W. B. 1927. On a large Tonna and two other gasteropods of Australian origin. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 559-562.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Woodward, S. P., & R. Tate. 1868. A Manual of the Mollusca: a treatise of Recent and fossil shells, 2nd ed., with an appendix of recent and fossil conchological discoveries to the present time. Virtue & Co.: London.

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