The thiarid Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive species in many parts of the world and intermediate host for some medically significant flukes. Photo by Alex Kawazaki.

Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Thiaridae are a family of freshwater caenogastropods. In the past, pretty much all lake-dwelling cerithioids have been treated as Thiaridae (or as Melaniidae, an older but invalid name for the same family), but this larger Thiaridae is now regarded as polyphyletic.

Characters (from Strong et al., in press): Midgut with accessory pads large and textured, distal end of crescentic ridge attaching to right side of glandular pad and coiling deeply into caecum, style sac typhlosoles partially fused. Female foot lacking ciliated egg groove; subhaemocoelic brood pouch present; pallial oviduct a nonglandular tube; no sperm gutters in pallial oviduct medial lamina; spermatophore bursa large, comprising most of pallial oviduct. Euspermatozoa with nuclear basal invagination long but well short of apex, nucleus longer than 15 μm. Reproduction gonochoristic or parthenogenetic; embryonic development extra-capsular but within parental body. Haploid chromosome number greater than 20.

<==Thiaridae [Melaniidae]
    |--Pyrgulifera Meek 1871 [Pyrguliferidae] BR05
    |--Pachymelania Smith 1893 [Pachymelaniidae] BR05
    |--Aylacostoma Spix 1827 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--A. chloroticum Hylton Scott 1954 RGG06
    |    |--A. guaraniticum (Hylton Scott 1951) RGG06
    |    `--A. stigmaticum Hylton Scott 1954 RGG06
    |--Melanoides Olivier 1804 [Melanoididae, Melanoidinae, Melanoidoidea] BR05
    |    |--M. admirabilis M04
    |    |--M. herculea (Gould 1846) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |--M. reevei (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |--M. tourannensis [=Melania (Melanoides) tourannensis] TC89
    |    |--M. tuberculata (Müller 1774) RGG06
    |    `--‘Melania’ variabilis TC89
    `--Thiara Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |  i. s.: ‘Melania’ abbreviata Defrance 1823 F27
         |         ‘Melania’ crenulata F66
         |         ‘Melania’ fasciolata F66
         |         ‘Melania’ lateritia F66
         |--‘Melania’ (Striatella) TC89
         |    |--‘Melania’ (S.) pyramis TC89
         |    `--‘Melania’ (S.) tuberculata [=Nerita tuberculata] TC89
         `--‘Melania’ (Tarebia) lirata Benson 1836 [incl. M. flavida, Helix lineata, M. semigranosa] TC89

Nomen nudum: Aylacostoma cingulatum Hylton Scott in Rumi, Gutiérrez Gregoric et al. 2006 RGG06

Aylacostoma Spix 1827 [incl. Hemisinus Swainson 1840, Semisinus Fischer 1885; Aylacostomatinae, Hemisininae, Hemisinuinae, Hemisinuseae, Semisinusinae] BR05

Melanoides herculea (Gould 1846) [=Melania (Melanoides) herculea; incl. Melania indica, Melania herculea var. sowerbyi, Melania varicosa] TC89

Melanoides reevei [=Melania (Melanoides) reevei; incl. Melania (M.) reevei var. imbricata, Melania (M.) reevei var. regularis Tapparone Canefri 1889] TC89

Thiara Röding 1798 [=Melania Lamarck 1799; Melaniacea, Melaniana, Melanianae, Thiareae, Thiarinae, Tiarinae] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[M04] Michel, E. 2004. Vinundu, a new genus of gastropod (Cerithioidea: ‘Thiaridae’) with two species of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, and its molecular phylogenetic relationships. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 1-19.

[RGG06] Rumi, A., D. E. Gutiérrez Gregoric, V. Núñez, I. I. César, M. A. Roche, M. P. Tassara, S. M. Martín & M. F. López Armengol. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49 (1): 189-208.

Strong, E. E., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, C. Lydeard, W. F. Ponder & M. Glaubrecht. in press. Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII. – Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

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