Capulidae


Trichotropis bicarinata, photographed by Mingzhu Gao.


Belongs within: Littorinimorpha.

The Capulidae as recognised by Bouchet et al. (2005) combines what other authors have recognised as the families Capulidae and Trichotropidae. Though superficially quite different in appearance ('capulids' are limpet-shaped; 'trichotropids' are high-spired and coiled), the two groups share a distinctive larval form called the echinospira (also found in some other littorinimorph families such as the Lamellariidae) and a unique feeding structure called the pseudoproboscis. Simone (2002) disputed the monophyly of this expanded Capulidae, regarding the high-spired Trichotropidae as the sister group to a clade of limpet-shaped families uniting Capulidae with Calyptraeidae, Vanikoridae and Hipponicidae.

Characteristics (from Simone 2002 and Beechey 2007): Shell cap-shaped or high-spired coil, with a thick (often spiky) periostracum. Snout with a long ventral projection ('pseudoproboscis') used in collecting food. Osphradium monopectinate with triangular filaments on right side only.

<==Capulidae [Capulacea, Capulusidae, Capuloidea]
    |--‘Verena’ Gray 1857 non Adams & Adams 1854 [Verenadae, Verenidae] BR05
    |--Cerithioderma Conrad 1860 [Cerithiodermatidae, Cerithiodermidae] BR05
    |--Sirius Hedley 1900 [Siriidae] BR05
    |    `--*S. badius F27a
    |--Pileopsis Lamarck 1822 [Pileopsidae] BR05
    |    |--P. angustus Philipps 1836 F27b
    |    `--P. tenella Dana 1849 [=Capulus tenellus] W63
    |--Capulus Montfort 1810 [Capulinae] BR05
    |    |--*C. hungaricus O27
    |    |--C. alatus Laube 1869 [=Pseudorthonychia alata] FH03
    |    |--C. angustus Wanner 1922 F27b
    |    |--C. californicus Dall 1900 O27
    |    |--C. calyptra (Martyn 1784) [=Patella calyptra] H09
    |    |--C. devotus M54
    |    `--C. tricarinatus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Patella tricarinata] H09
    |--Piliscus Loven 1856 O27
    |    `--P. commodus Middendorff 1851 [incl. Capulus radiatus] O27
    `--Trichotropis Broderip & Sowerby 1829 [Trichotropidae, Trichotropinae] BR05
         |  i. s.: T. bicarinatus (Sowerby 1825) [=Turbo bicarinatus] O27
         |         T. cancellata Hinds 1843 O27
         |         T. conica Möller 1842 O27
         |         T. costellata Couthouy 1838 O27
         |         T. insignis Middendorff 1849 O27
         |--*T. (Trichotropis) borealis O27
         `--T. (Iphinoe Adams & Adams 1854) O27
              |--T. (I.) coronata Gould 1860 O27
              |--T. (I.) kelseyi Dall 1905 O27
              `--T. (I.) kroyeri Philippi 1849 O27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320-485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[FH03] Frýda, J., & D. Heidelberger. 2003. Systematic position of Cyrtoneritimorpha within the class Gastropoda with description of two new genera from Siluro-Devonian strata of central Europe. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 78 (1): 35-39.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In The Archipelago of the Recherche (J. M. Willis, ed.) pp. 55-63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Simone, L. R. L. 2002. Comparative morphological study and phylogeny of representatives of the superfamily Calyptraeoidea (including Hipponicoidea) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda). Biota Neotropica 2 (2): 1-137.

[W63] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 4 – Platyceratacea, Anomphalacea, Neritacea, and correlations. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (5): 817-842.

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