Hypsogastropoda

Microptychis charma, from Pan & Erwin (2002).


Belongs within: Caenogastropoda.
Contains: Coelostylinidae, Rissooidea, Latrogastropoda, Eulimidae, Aclididae, Zygopleuridae, Pseudomelanioidea, Epitoniidae, Janthinidae, Plocezyga.

The Hypsogastropoda are a major clade of caenogastropods possessing an exophallic penis positioned behind the right cephalic tentacle (Simone 2011). They are primarily marine though several lineages have diversified in fresh water. Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) divided the hypsogastropods between three major groups: the Littorinimorpha, Ptenoglossa and Neogastropoda. Littorinimorphs possess a taenioglossate radula (with a single large central tooth and two marginal and a lateral tooth on each side) and share a distinctive sperm morphology with the Neogastropoda. However, these characters are potentially plesiomorphic for Hypsogastropoda as a whole, and the 'Littorinimorpha' are probably paraphyletic (Ponder et al. 2008). The Ptenoglossa (or Ctenoglossa) are a smaller group of species possessing an acrembolic proboscis (with the retractor muscles attached to the distal end of the proboscis) and often a ptenoglossate radula with numerous similar simple teeth in each row (Ponder et a. 2008). Support for the monophyly of this group is also weak, however, and the features of the Ptenoglossa may have arisen polyphyletically as adaptations to suctorial predation.

Synapomorphies (from Simone 2011, for crown group): Nephridial gland present. Loss of pair of auxiliary muscle (m12) of horizontal muscle (m6). Exophallic penis present, situated behind and at right of right cephalic tentacle, with respective duct. Development of albumen and capsule glands at pallial oviduct. Each statocyst with single statolith.

<==Hypsogastropoda (see below for synonymy) PC08
    |  i. s.: Coelostylinidae BR05
    |         Pommerozygiidae BR05
    |           |--Pommerozygia Gründel 1998 BR05
    |           `--Costazygia Gründel 1999 G01
    |                `--C. bilzi Gründel 1999 G01
    |         Settsassia Bandel 1992 [Settsassiidae] BR05
    |--+--+--‘Amauropsis’ rossiana Smith 1907 S11
    |  |  `--+--Rissooidea S11
    |  |     `--Latrogastropoda BD12
    |  `--Ptenoglossa [Ctenoglossa] S11
    |       |--Eulimoidea [Eulimacea] BR05
    |       |    |--Eulimidae S11
    |       |    `--Aclididae BR05
    |       `--+--+--Zygopleuridae PC08
    |          |  `--Pseudomelanioidea PC08
    |          `--Epitonioidea [Epitoniacea] BR05
    |               |--Epitoniidae PC08
    |               |--Nystiella Clench & Turner 1952 [Nystiellidae, Nystiellinae] BR05
    |               `--Janthinidae BR05
    `--+--Erwinispirinae PC08
       `--Pseudozygopleuridae [Pseudozygopleurinae, Pseudozygopleuroidea] PC08
            |--Plocezyga BR05
            |--Cyclozyga Knight 1930 [Cyclozygidae] BR05
            |--Eoptychia Longstaff 1930 [Eoptychiidae] BR05
            |    `--*E. sulcata (deKoninck 1881) [=Loxonema sulcatum] KC60
            |--Stephanozyga Knight 1930 [Stephanozygidae, Stephanozyginae] BR05
            |    `--*S. nodosa (Girty 1915) [=Zygopleura nodosa, Palaeostylus (*Stephanozyga) nodosus] KC60
            |--Yaoxianospira Chen 1980 C80
            |    `--*Y. yaoxianensis Chen 1980 C80
            |--Knightella Longstaff 1933 [=Knightia Longstaff 1933 non Jordan 1907] KC60
            |    `--*K. irregularis (Longstaff 1933) [=*Knightia irregularis] KC60
            |--Helminthozyga Knight 1930 KC60
            |    `--*H. vermicula Knight 1930 KC60
            |--Pseudozygopleura Knight 1930 BR05
            |    |--*P. semicostatum (Meek 1872) PE02 (see below for synonymy)
            |    `--P. micra Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
            `--Microptychis Longstaff 1912 PE02
                 |--*M. wrighti Longstaff 1912 KC60
                 |--M. cerithiformis KC60
                 |--M. charma Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
                 `--M. expetendus Hoare & Sturgeon 1980 PE02

Hypsogastropoda [Acropththalma, Ancistroglossata, Cyclomyaria, Echinospiracea, Echinospirida, Haemiglossata, Hamiglossa, Littorinimorpha, Metamesogastropoda, Peloridae, Pleurembolica, Scaphoconchoidea, Vermivora] PC08

*Pseudozygopleura semicostatum (Meek 1872) PE02 [=Loxonema attenuata semicostata KC60, L. semicostatum PE02, Palaeostylus (*Pseudozygopleura) semicostatus KC60]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C80] Chen R.-Y. 1980. Yaoxianospira, a new genus of Gastropoda from the Taoqipo Formation in Yaoxian of Shaanxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 19 (5): 421–422.

[G01] Gründel, J. 2001. Neritimorpha und weitere Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda) aus dem Dogger Norddeutschlands und des nordwestlichen Polens. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E 36: 45–99.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[PE02] Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. Journal of Paleontology 76 (Memoir 56): 1–49.

[PC08] Ponder, W. F., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, A. Nützel, L. R. L. Simone & E. E. Strong. 2008. Caenogastropoda. In: Ponder, W. F., & D. L. Lindberg (eds) Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca pp. 331–383. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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