Hematites barbarae, from here.

Belongs within: Ammonoidea.
Contains: Belemnitida, Neocoleoidea, Xiphoteuthididae.

The cephalopod clade Coleoidea includes all living cephalopods except the Nautilidae. The main character separating the coleoids from other cephalopods was the reduction and internalisation of the shell (phragmocone); modern coleoids are active hunters, their lack of an external shell giving them great motility. Basal fossil members of the clade possessed an internal guard formed of calcite. The earliest cephalopods with an undoubted internal phragmocone belong to the Early Carboniferous Hematites (Kröger et al. 2011). Species of Hematites have a narrow, straight phragmocone with a short living chamber and a short, ridged rostrum of combined aragonite and organic material. The Carboniferous to Jurassic Aulacoceratida possess a long, tube-shaped living chamber on the phragmocone with a simple peristome.

Coleoidea [Gamochonia] D93
    |--+--Belemnitida KVF11
    |  `--Neocoleoidea KVF11
    |--Hematites [Hematitida] KVF11
    |    |--H. barbarae Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
    |    |--H. burbankensis Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
    |    `--H. girtyi Flower & Gordon 1959 D93
    `--Aulacoceratida [Protobelemnoidea] KVF11
         |  i. s.: Choanoteuthis E64
         |--Xiphoteuthididae D93
         |--Palaeobelemnopsis [Palaeobelemnopsidae] D93
         |    `--P. sinensis Chen 1982 D93
         |--Chitinoteuthis [Chitinoteuthididae] D93
         |    |--C. crassicristata Müller-Stol 1936 D93
         |    `--C. decidua Müller-Stoll 1936 D93
         `--Aulacoceratidae D93
              |--Aulacoceras E64
              |--Paleoconus bakeri Flower & Gordon 1959 D93
              |--Bactrimimus ulrichi Flower & Gordon 1959 D93
              |--Prographularia triadica Frech 1890 D93
              `--Austroteuthis kuehni Jeletzky & Zapfe 1967 D93

Coleoidea incertae sedis:
  Illex W81
    |--I. coindeti B26
    `--I. illecebrosus W81 [=Ommastrephes illecebrosus B26]
  Dosidicus gigas W81
  Phragmoteuthididae [Phragmoteuthida] KVF11
    |  i. s.: ‘Belemnoteuthis’ montefiorei (Buckman 1880) GD00
    |--Permoteuthis groenlandica Rosenkrantz 1946 D93
    `--Phragmoteuthis GD00
         |--P. conocauda (Quenstedt 1849) GD00
         `--P. ticinensis Rieber 1970 GD00
  Bactritimimus H87
    |--B. girtyi Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
    `--B. ulrichi Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
  Todarodes filipovae H01
  Psychoteuthis glacialis H01
  Allouroteuthis antarcticus H01
  Abraliopsis felis SC10
  Helicocranchia pfefferi SC10
  Ostenoteuthidae GD00
    |--Ostenoteuthis Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
    |    `--*O. siroi Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
    `--Uncinoteuthis Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
         `--*U. cuvieri Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
  Protoaulacoceras [Protoaulacoceratidae] D93
    `--P. longirostris Bandel, Reitner & Stürmer 1983 D93
  Belospirula compressa Ayyasami & Jagandha Rao 1987 D93
  Bayanoteuthis [Bayanoteuthididae] D93
    `--B. rugifer (Schloenbach 1868) D93
  Boletzkyida [Palaeoteuthomorpha] D93
    |--Naefiteuthis [Naefiteuthididae] D93
    |    `--N. breviphragmoconus Bandel et al. 1983 D93
    `--Boletzkya [Boletzkyidae] D93
         |--B. hunsrueckensis Bandel et al. 1983 D93
         `--B. longa Bandel et al. 1983 D93
  ‘Bactrites’ quadrilineatus M17
  Rugobactrites M17

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[D93] Doyle, P. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Coleoidea). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 229–236. Chapman & Hall: London.

[E64] Erben, H. K. 1964. Bactritoidea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K491–K505. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[GD00] Garassino, A., & D. T. Donovan. 2000. A new family of coleoids from the Lower Jurassic of Osteno, northern Italy. Palaeontology 43 (6): 1019–1038.

[H01] Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31 (1): 135–160.

[H87] Holland, C. H. 1987. The nautiloid cephalopods: a strange success story. Journal of the Geological Society 144 (1): 1–15.

[KVF11] Kröger, B., J. Vinther & D. Fuchs. 2011. Cephalopod origin and evolution: a congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules. Bioessays 33: 602–613.

[M17] Mutvei, H. 2017. The new order Mixosiphonata (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea) and related taxa; estimations of habitat depth based on shell structure. GFF 139 (3): 219–232.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the type specimens of invertebrate fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1–198.

[SC10] Smith, M. R., & J.-B. Caron. 2010. Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian. Nature 465: 469–472.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

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