Coleoidea

Pygmy squid Idiosepius paradoxus, from here.


Belongs within: Angusteradulata.
Contains: Octopoda, Sepiida, Teuthida, Sepiolidae, Belemnitellidae.

The cephalopod clade Coleoidea includes all living cephalopods except the Nautilidae. The main character separating the coleoids from other cephalopods was the reduction and internalisation of the shell; modern coleoids are active hunters, their lack of an external shell giving them great motility. The extinct Belemnitida possessed a usually bullet-shaped, internal guard formed of calcite that is commonly preserved in rocks of the Mesozoic era. Within the coleoid crown group, members of the clade Decabrachia retain some modified form of the original shell, such as the cuttlebone of cuttlefish or the 'pen' of squids. In members of the clade Vampyropoda, however, no trace of a mineralised shell remains (Kröger et al. 2011).

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Shell reduced, internal or absent; eight to ten arms; mantle highly muscular; hyponome fused; single pair of ctenidia (gills); ink-sac present; well-developed circulatory system with capillaries and supplemental branchial hearts.

Coleoidea [Gamochonia]
    |--Neocoleoidea YVD98
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Bactrites’ postremus YVD98
    |    |--Vampyropoda [Octobrachia, Octopodiformes, Vampyromorphoidea] KVF11
    |    |    |--Octopoda GO06
    |    |    `--Vampyroteuthis [Vampyromorpha, Vampyroteuthididae] KVF11
    |    |         `--V. infernalis Chun 1903 RP07
    |    `--Decabrachia [Decapodiformes, Sepioidea] KVF11
    |         |  i. s.: Adygeya YVD98
    |         |         Naefia YVD98
    |         |         Spirulirostridae YVD98
    |         |           |--Spirulirostra YVD98
    |         |           `--Spirulirostrina YVD98
    |         |         Belemnoseidae YVD98
    |         |--Sepiida GO06
    |         `--+--Teuthida GO06
    |            `--Sepiolida KVF11
    |                 |--Sepiolidae GO06
    |                 `--Idiosepius KVF11 [Idiosepiidae YVD98]
    |                      |--I. paradoxus SW11
    |                      `--I. pygmaeus GO06
    `--Belemnitida [Belemnoidea, Belemnotheutida] P98
         |  i. s.: Zugmontites mojsisovicsi Reis 1907 E64
         |         Belemnopsis K79
         |           |--B. madagascarensis K79
         |           `--B. patagoniensis K79
         |         Dimitobelus St98
         |           |--D. hectori St98
         |           |--D. ongleyi St98
         |           `--D. stimulus RC02
         |         Atractites E64
         |           |--A. breviconus Reis 1907 E64
         |           |--A. conicus Mojsisovics 1871 E64
         |           |--A. convergens Hauer 1847 E64
         |           |--A. ellipticus Mojsisovics 1871 E64
         |           |--A. giganteus Gemmellaro 1904 E64
         |           `--A. meneghinii Salomon 1895 E64
         |         Gonioteuthis Bayle 1878 LS04
         |           |--G. granulata Ka79
         |           |--G. praewesfalica Sp98
         |           |--G. quadrata Ka79
         |           |    |--G. q. quadrata Ka79
         |           |    `--G. q. gracilis Ka79
         |           `--G. westfalica Ka79
         |         Acrocoelites (Toarcibelus) raui (Werner 1912) GD00
         |         Passaloteuthis paxillosa (Schlotheim 1820) GD00
         |         Chondroteuthis Bode 1933 [incl. Sueviteuthis Reitner & Engeser 1982] GD00
         |         Belemnotheutis Pearce 1842 GD00
         |           |--B. antiqua Pearce 1847 GD00
         |           |--B. mayri Engeser & Reitner 1981 GD00
         |           `--B. polonica Makowski 1952 GD00
         |         Acanthoteuthis Wagner in Münster 1839 GD00
         |           `--A. speciosa Münster 1839 GD00
         |         Chitinobelus Fischer 1981 GD00
         `--Belemnitellidae C02

Coleoidea incertae sedis:
  Illex W81
    |--I. coindeti B26
    `--I. illecebrosus W81 [=Ommastrephes illecebrosus B26]
  Dosidicus gigas W81
  Phragmoteuthida KVF11
    |  i. s.: ‘Belemnoteuthis’ montefiorei (Buckman 1880) GD00
    `--Phragmoteuthis GD00
         |--P. conocauda (Quenstedt 1849) GD00
         `--P. ticinensis Rieber 1970 GD00
  Bactritimimus H87
    |--B. girtyi Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
    `--B. ulrichi Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
  Eobelemnites caneyense Flower 1945 P68
  Paleoconus bakeri Flower & Gordon 1959 P68
  Trachyteuthis hastiformis M79
  Todarodes filipovae H01
  Psychoteuthis glacialis H01
  Allouroteuthis antarcticus H01
  Abraliopsis felis SC10
  Helicocranchia pfefferi SC10
  Diplobelida KVF11
  Ostenoteuthidae GD00
    |--Ostenoteuthis Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
    |    `--*O. siroi Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
    `--Uncinoteuthis Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
         `--*U. cuvieri Garassino & Donovan 2000 GD00
  Loligosepiida GD00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[C02] Christensen, W. K. 2002. Fusiteuthis polonica, a rare and unusual belemnite from the Maastrichtian. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 679–683.

[E64] Erben, H. K. 1964. Bactritoidea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K491–K505. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[GD00] Garassino, A., & D. T. Donovan. 2000. A new family of coleoids from the Lower Jurassic of Osteno, northern Italy. Palaeontology 43 (6): 1019–1038.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H01] Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31 (1): 135–160.

[H87] Holland, C. H. 1987. The nautiloid cephalopods: a strange success story. Journal of the Geological Society 144 (1): 1–15.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KVF11] Kröger, B., J. Vinther & D. Fuchs. 2011. Cephalopod origin and evolution: a congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules. Bioessays 33: 602–613.

[LS04] Lindgren, J. & M. Siverson. 2004. The first record of the mosasaur Clidastes from Europe and its palaeogeographical implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 219–234.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the type specimens of invertebrate fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1–198.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739–760.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SC10] Smith, M. R., & J.-B. Caron. 2010. Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian. Nature 465: 469–472.

[SW11] Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature 480: 364–367.

[Sp98] Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. Lethaia 31: 28.

[St98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

Sweet, W. C. 1964. Cephalopoda - general features. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea pp. K4–K13. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[YVD98] Young, R. E., M. Vecchione & D. T. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Journal of Marine Science 20: 393–420.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS