Calyptraea chinensis, copyright Erhanux.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Crepidula.

The Calyptraeidae, slipper limpets, are a family of limpet-like marine gastropods whose vernacular name refers to a septum partially closing the opening of the shell. Muscle scars (if present) are large and not horseshoe-shaped, and located just before the septum. The animal possesses well-developed eyes at the base of stubby tentacles. They are most famous for the stacking behaviour of some species: as protandrous hermaphrodites (starting life as males and later becoming females), they form mating stacks when a male climbs on top of a female. Other males will then climb on top of him, waiting for the time when the male below them becomes a female. Females then brood their larvae under their shells for at least part of their development (Herbert & Portell 2004). Members of the genus Sigapatella retain a coiled spire with rounded whorls.

<==Calyptraeidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Sigapatella Lesson 1830 S11, P61
    |    |--*S. calyptraeformis (Lamarck 1822) P61, S11 [=Calyptraea (*Sigapatella) calyptraeformis P61]
    |    |--S. maccoyi (Suter 1917) [=Calyptraea maccoyi] F27a
    |    |--S. novaezelandiae Lesson 1830 P61
    |    |--S. superstes Fleming 1958 P61
    |    |--S. terraenovae Peile 1924 P61
    |    `--S. vertex (Marwick 1926) [=Calyptraea vertex] F27a
    `--+--‘Trochita’ Schumacher 1817 non Hofer 1760 S11, BR05
       |    |--*T. spiralis Schumacher 1817 BR17
       |    |--T. candeana G79
       |    |--T. costellata C64
       |    |--T. diegoana Conrad 1855 C64
       |    |--T. dilatata H86
       |    |--T. neozelanica H86
       |    |--T. radians C64
       |    |--T. subtabulata Q72
       |    |--T. trochiformis (Born 1778) S11 [=Calyptraea trochiformis CF02; incl. T. spirata C64]
       |    |--T. turbinata Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
       |    `--T. ventricosa C64
       `--+--+--+--Crepidula S11
          |  |  `--Bostrycapulus S11
          |  |       |--B. aculeatus (Gmelin 1791) S11
          |  |       |--B. bonnieae (Petuch & Drolshagen 2009) [=Crepidula (Bostrycapulus) bonnieae] P12
          |  |       `--B. odites Collin 2005 S11
          |  `--Crucibulum Schumacher 1817 S11, O27
          |       |--*C. rudis O27
          |       |--C. auricula (Gmelin 1791) [=Patella auricula] MP65
          |       |--C. auritum [incl. C. striata] C64
          |       |--C. corrugatum [incl. C. jewetti] C64
          |       |--C. imbricatum C64
          |       |--C. lignarium (Broderip 1834) PP78 [incl. C. rugosum C64]
          |       |--C. pectinatum C64
          |       |--C. personatum Keen 1958 V89
          |       |--C. quiriquinae (Lesson 1830) S11 [incl. C. byronensis C64, C. ferrugineum C64]
          |       |--C. radiatum C64
          |       |--C. scetellatum (Wood 1828) V89
          |       |--C. serratum C64
          |       |--C. sordidum [incl. Calyptraea unguis, Cr. unguis] C64
          |       |--C. spinosum (Sowerby 1824) V89 (see below for synonymy)
          |       `--C. umbrella (Deshayes 1830) V89
          `--Calyptraea Lamarck 1799 S11, BR05 [=Galerus Gray 1847 BR17]
               |--*C. chinensis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Patella chinensis, *Galerus chinensis] BR17
               |--C. auriculata [=Crucibulum auriculatum; incl. Ca. cuvieri] G79
               |--C. centralis (Conrad 1841) S11
               |--C. cepacea [incl. C. planulata] C64
               |--C. conica [=Galerus conicus; incl. C. aspersa, Trochita aspera] C64
               |--C. contorta (Carpenter 1865) [=Galerus contortus] O27
               |--C. corrugata Broderip 1835 F27b [=Trochita corrugata C64]
               |--C. edgariana Melv. 1898 [=C. (Galerus) edgariana] M01
               |--C. equestris G20
               |--C. fastigiata Gould 1846 V89 [=Galerus fastigiatus C64]
               |--C. imbricata C64 [incl. C. extinctorium C64, Galerus extinctorum F66]
               |--C. laevis (Philippi 1887) BD12
               |--C. lybicus Quaas 1902 BD12
               |--C. maculata H79
               |--C. mammillaris (Broderip 1834) V89 [=Galerus mamillaris C64; incl. G. regularis C64, Trochita solida C64]
               |--C. pellucida (Reeve 1859) [=Trochita pellucida] H09
               |--C. primogenita Kiel & Bandel 2003 BD12
               |--C. (Calypeopsis) rugosa C64
               |--C. solitaria Wilckens 1922 (n. d.) F27a
               |--C. spinosa C64
               |--‘Galerus’ subreflexus Cpr. 1855 [=Trochita subreflexa] C64
               `--C. tortilis C64

Calyptraeidae incertae sedis:
  Dispotaea Say 1824 [=Dispotea (l. c.); Dispoteana, Dispotaeinae] BR05
    |--*D. costata (Say 1820) [=Calyptraea costata] BR17
    `--D. concameratum (Reeve 1859) [=Crucibulum (Dispotaea) concameratum] PP78
  Zegalerus Finlay 1927 P61
    |--*Z. tenuis (Gray 1867) [=Clypeola tenuis] P61
    |--Z. crater Finlay 1927 P61 [=Trochita alta Hutton 1885 non Conrad 1855 F27a, Calyptraea alta F27a]
    |--Z. hedleyi [=Calyptraea hedleyi] F27a
    |--Z. tatei Finlay 1927 [=Calyptraea corrugata Tate 1893 nec Broderip 1835 nec Forbes 1846] F27b
    `--Z. tumens Finlay 1930 P61
  Maoricrypta Finlay 1927 P61
    |--M. (Maoricrypta) P61
    |    |--*M. (M.) costata (Sowerby 1824) [=Crepidula costata] P61
    |    |--M. (M.) densistriata (Suter 1917) [=Crepidula densistriata] F27a
    |    |--M. (M.) halitoidea (Marwick 1926) [=Crepidula halitoidea] F27a
    |    |--M. (M.) hochstetteriana (Wilckens 1922) [=Crepidula hochstetteriana] F27a
    |    |--M. (M.) radiata [=Pilaeopsis radiatus; incl. Crepidula striata (n. d.)] F27a
    |    |--M. (M.) wilckensi (Finlay 1924) F27a (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--M. (M.) youngi Powell 1940 P61
    `--M. (Zeacrypta Finlay 1927) P61
         `--M. (*Z.) monoxyla (Lesson 1830) [=Calyptraea monoxyla] P61
  Ergaea Adams & Adams 1854 [Ergaeina, Ergaeinae] BR17
    `--*E. plana (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Calyptraea plana] BR17
  Galericulus altus (Seeley 1861) TTE93

Nomen nudum: Calyptraea alveolata C64

Calyptraeidae [Calyptraeacea, Calyptraina, Crepidulacea, Crepiduladae, Crepidulidae, Galeridae, Galerina, Galerinae, Trochitina, Trochitinae]

Crucibulum spinosum (Sowerby 1824) V89 [incl. Cr. cinerea C64, Calyptraea hispida C64, Cr. maculata C64, Cr. peziza C64, Calypaeopsis tubifera C64, Cr. tubifera C64]

Maoricrypta (Maoricrypta) wilckensi (Finlay 1924) F27a [=Crepidula wilckensi F27a, C. incurva Zittel 1865 non (Broderip 1834) F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[CF02] Chaparro, O. R., & M. L. Flores. 2002. Reproductive output of Crepidula fecunda females: distribution of energy in the production of gametes and capsular walls. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 661–673.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V89] Vermeij, G. J. 1989. Habitat and form of Crepidula grandis in Japan, with comments on habitat specialization in calyptraeid gastropods. Nautilus 103 (3): 89–91.

Last updated: 16 September 2021.

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