Mating stack of Crepidula fornicata, photographed by Keith Hiscock.

Belongs within: Littorinimorpha.

The Calyptraeidae, slipper limpets (named for the septum partially closing the opening of the shell), are a family of limpet-like marine gastropods. They are most famous for the stacking behaviour of some species: as protandrous hermaphrodites (starting life as males and later becoming females), they form mating stacks when a male climbs on top of a female. Other males will then climb on top of him, waiting for the time when the male below them becomes a female. Females then brood their larvae under their shells for at least part of their development (Herbert & Portell 2004). Some species of Crepidula are specialised for living inside shells occupied by hermit crabs, being small and flattened or dorsally concave to conform with the internal curvature of the host shell (Vermeij 1989).

Characteristics (from Collin 2003): Shell limpet-shaped with a shelly septum extending into the body cavity of the shell. Zero, one or two large (not horseshoe-shaped) muscle scars on the shell just anterior to the shell septum. Well-developed eyes at the base of stubby tentacles.

<==Calyptraeidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Dispotaea Say 1824 [=Dispotea (l. c.); Dispoteana, Dispotaeinae] BR05
    |--Ergea Adams & Adams 1854 [Ergeinae] BR05
    |--‘Mitrella’ Gray 1847 non Risso 1826 [Mitrellinae] BR05
    |--Crucibulum Schumacher 1817 O27
    |    |--*C. rudis O27
    |    `--C. spinosum Sowerby 1824 O27
    |--Zegalerus Finlay 1927 F27a
    |    |--*Z. tenuis (Gray 1867) [=Clypeola tenuis] F27a
    |    |--Z. crater Finlay 1927 [=Trochita alta Hutton 1885 non Conrad 1855, Calyptraea alta] F27a
    |    |--Z. hedleyi [=Calyptraea hedleyi] F27a
    |    `--Z. tatei Finlay 1927 [=Calyptraea corrugata Tate 1893 nec Broderip 1835 nec Forbes 1846] F27b
    |--Crucibulum V89
    |    |--C. personatum Keen 1958 V89
    |    |--C. scetellatum (Wood 1828) V89
    |    |--C. spinosum (Sowerby 1824) V89
    |    `--C. umbrella (Deshayes 1830) V89
    |--Sigapatella F27a
    |    |--S. calyptraeformis F27a
    |    |--S. maccoyi (Suter 1917) [=Calyptraea maccoyi] F27a
    |    |--S. novaezelandiae F27a
    |    |--S. terraenovae Peile 1924 F27a
    |    `--S. vertex (Marwick 1926) [=Calyptraea vertex] F27a
    |--Maoricrypta Finlay 1927 F27a
    |    |--M. (Maoricrypta) F27a
    |    |    |--*M. (M.) costata [=Crepidula costata] F27a
    |    |    |--M. (M.) densistriata (Suter 1917) [=Crepidula densistriata] F27a
    |    |    |--M. (M.) halitoidea (Marwick 1926) [=Crepidula halitoidea] F27a
    |    |    |--M. (M.) hochstetteriana (Wilckens 1922) [=Crepidula hochstetteriana] F27a
    |    |    |--M. (M.) radiata [=Pilaeopsis radiatus; incl. Crepidula striata (n. d.)] F27a
    |    |    `--M. (M.) wilckensi (Finlay 1924) F27a (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--M. (Zeacrypta Finlay 1927) F27a
    |         `--M. (*Z.) monoxyla F27a
    |--Calyptraea Lamarck 1799 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*C. chinensis O27
    |    |--C. contorta (Carpenter 1865) [=Galerus contortus] O27
    |    |--C. corrugata Broderip 1835 F27b
    |    |--‘Galerus’ extinctorum F66
    |    |--C. fastigiata Gould 1846 O27
    |    |--C. mammillaris (Broderip 1834) V89
    |    |--C. pellucida (Reeve 1859) [=Trochita pellucida] H09
    |    |--C. solitaria Wilckens 1922 (n. d.) F27a
    |    |--‘Trochita’ subtabulata Q72
    |    |--C. trochiformis [=Trochita trochiformis] CF02
    |    `--‘Trochita’ turbinata Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
    `--Crepidula Lamarck 1799 HP04 [=Crypta Gray 1847 non Stephens 1830 F27a, BR05; Cryptaina]
         |  i. s.: C. barbudaensis Usticke 1969 BC01
         |         C. derjugini Golikov & Kussakin 1962 V89
         |         C. dilatata CF02
         |         C. fecunda Gallardo 1979 CF02
         |         C. gregaria [incl. Haliotis imperforata Philippi 1887 non Gmelin 1791] F27b
         |         C. incurva (Broderip 1834) V89
         |         C. lessonii (Broderip 1834) V89
         |         C. maculosa Conrad 1846 HP04
         |         C. monoxyla HS01
         |         C. perforans (Valenciennes 1846) V89
         |         C. philippiana CF02
         |         C. plana Say 1822 HP04
         |         C. profunda HS01
         |         C. striolata (Menke 1851) V89
         |--C. (Crepidula) O27
         |    |--*C. (C.) fornicata (Linnaeus 1758) O27, HP04 [=Patella fornicata F27a, *Crypta fornicata F27a]
         |    |    |--C. f. fornicata BC01
         |    |    `--C. f. cruzana Usticke 1959 BC01
         |    |--C. (C.) aculeata (Gmelin 1791) O27, V89 [=Patella aculeata H09]
         |    |--C. (C.) adunca Sowerby 1825 O27, HP04
         |    |--C. (C.) convexa Say 1822 O27, HP04
         |    |    |--C. c. convexa O27
         |    |    `--C. c. glauca Say 1822 O27
         |    |--C. (C.) excavata Broderip 1834 O27
         |    |    |--C. e. excavata O27
         |    |    `--C. e. naticarum Williamson 1905 [=C. rugosa var. naticarum] O27
         |    |--C. (C.) exuviata Nuttall 1859 O27
         |    |--C. (C.) grandis (Middendorff 1849) O27
         |    |--C. (C.) norrisiarum Williamson 1905 [=C. rugosa var. norrisiarum] O27
         |    |--C. (C.) onyx (Sowerby 1824) O27, V89
         |    `--C. (C.) orbiculata Dall 1919 O27
         |--C. (Crepipatella Lesson 1830) O27
         |    `--C. (C.) lingulata (Gould 1846) O27
         |--C. (Ianacus Morch 1852) O27
         |    |--C. (I.) fimbriata Reeve 1859 O27
         |    |--C. (I.) nivea Adams 1852 O27
         |    |    |--C. n. nivea O27
         |    |    `--C. n. glottidiarum Dall 1905 O27
         |    `--C. (I.) nummaria Gould 1846 O27
         `--C. (Siphopatella) walshi (Reeve 1859) V89

Calyptraea Lamarck 1799 BR05 [=Galerus Humphrey ex Adams & Adams 1854 F27a, BR05; incl. Trochita Schumacher 1817 non Hofer 1760 BR05; Trochitina, Trochitinae]

Calyptraeidae [Calyptraeacea, Calyptraeoidea, Calyptraina, Crepidulacea, Crepiduladae, Crepidulidae, Galeridae, Galerina, Galerinae]

Maoricrypta (Maoricrypta) wilckensi (Finlay 1924) F27a [=Crepidula wilckensi F27a, C. incurva Zittel 1865 non (Broderip 1834) F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B. & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1-170.

[CF02] Chaparro, O. R., & M. L. Flores. 2002. Reproductive output of Crepidula fecunda females: Distribution of energy in the production of gametes and capsular walls. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 661-673.

Collin, R. 2003. The utility of morphological characters in gastropod phylogenetics: an example from the Calyptraeidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 541-593.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320-485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HP04] Herbert, G. S., & R. W. Portell. 2004. First paleontological record of larval brooding in the calyptraeid gastropod genus Crepidula Lamarck, 1799. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 424-429.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25-44.

[V89] Vermeij, G. J. 1989. Habitat and form of Crepidula grandis in Japan, with comments on habitat specialization in calyptraeid gastropods. Nautilus 103 (3): 89-91.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS