Scorpionoidea


Liocheles australasiae. Photo by Alex Tietz.


Belongs within: Orthosterni.

The scorpion superfamily Scorpionoidea includes the Recent families Bothriuridae, Heteroscorpionidae, Urodacidae, Hemiscorpiidae, Liochelidae, Diplocentridae and Scorpionidae (Prendini 2000). Carvalho & Lourenço (2001) also assigned the early Cretaceous family Protoischnuridae here. Prendini's (2000) phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Bothriuridae are sister to the other families.

Characters: Cheliceral movable finger with distal external tooth considerably smaller than distal internal tooth and usually not opposable or at most moderately opposable; chela with at least four V trichobothria; legs without retrolateral pedal spurs; spiniform ventrosubmedian setae on telotarsi I-IV (setiform in Brachistosternus [Bothriuridae]); genital opercula loosely joined or fused; internobasal reflection of the sperm duct forming a pair of guide valves for sperm transfer when everted (Prendini 2000).

<==Scorpionoidea [Pandinidae, Pandinini, Pandinoidae]
    |  i. s.: Palamnaeus Thorell 1876 T89
    |           |--P. laevigatus Thorell 1876 KK84
    |           |--P. longimanus [incl. P. angustimanus] T89
    |           |--P. petersii Thorell 1876 [incl. P. bengalensis Sim. 1884] T89
    |           `--P. silenus T89
    |         Urodacus Peters 1861 KK84
    |           |--U. armatus SM80
    |           |--U. granifrons Pocock 1898 G63
    |           |--U. hoplurus SM90
    |           |--U. kraepelini Glauert 1963 [=U. granifrons Kraepelin 1916 non Pocock 1898] G63
    |           |--U. macrurus Pocock 1899 G63
    |           |--U. manicatus (Thorell 1876) [incl. U. abruptus Pocock 1888] G63
    |           |--U. novaehollandiae Peters 1861 KK84
    |           `--U. varians Glauert 1963 G63
    |--Protoischnuridae CL01
    |    |--Araripescorpius Campos 1986 CL01, S-BF04
    |    |    `--A. ligabuei Campos 1986 SF01
    |    `--Protoischnurus Carvalho & Lourenço 2001 CL01
    |         `--*P. axelrodorum Carvalho & Lourenço 2001 CL01
    |--Scorpionidae S07
    |    |--Opisthophthalmus carinatus AM07
    |    |--Scorpio maurus SS08
    |    |    |--S. m. maurus SS08
    |    |    `--S. m. fuscus SS08
    |    |--Diplocentrus B06
    |    |    |--D. lesueuri B06
    |    |    |--D. ochoterenai SF01
    |    |    `--D. peloncillensis Francke 1975 AS-N08
    |    |--Heterometrus S07
    |    |    |--H. megacephalus [=Pandinus megacephalus, Buthus megacephalus] T89
    |    |    |--H. petersii SF01
    |    |    `--H. spinifer S07
    |    `--Pandinus Thorell 1876 J98, K92
    |         |--P. ceylonicus K92
    |         |--P. imperator Koch 1842 S00
    |         |--P. indicus (Linnaeus 1754) [=Scorpio indicus] T94
    |         |--P. kochi K92
    |         `--P. platycheles Werner 1916 [=Pandinus (Pandinops) platycheles] J98
    |--Iuridae S07
    |    |  i. s.: Hadruroides AO02
    |    |           |--H. charcasus (Karsch 1879) AO02
    |    |           `--H. lunatus (Koch 1867) AO02
    |    |         Hadrurus S07
    |    |           |--H. arizonensis S07
    |    |           |--H. concolor SF01
    |    |           |--H. hirsutus SF01
    |    |           |--H. obscurus SF01
    |    |           |--H. pinteri SF01
    |    |           `--H. spadix SF01
    |    `--Iurinae [Iurini] T89
    |         |--Iurus dufoureius SF01
    |         |--Calchas SF01
    |         |--Chelomachus Thorell 1889 T89
    |         |    `--*C. birmanicus Thorell 1889 T89
    |         `--Scorpiops Peters 1861 T89
    |              |--S. anthracinus T89
    |              |--S. lindstroemii Thorell 1889 T89
    |              `--S. lugubris Thorell 1889 T89
    `--Liochelidae [Ischnuridae] FB01
         |--Hadogenes troglodytes AM07
         `--Liocheles Sundevall 1833 FB01 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*L. australasiae (Fabricius 1775) FB01 (see below for synonymy)
              |--‘Hormurus’ asiaticus Koch & Keyserling 1884-1885 KK84
              |--‘Hormurus’ boholiensis Kraepelin 1914 K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ caudicula (Koch 1867) (see below for synonymy) KK84
              |--‘Ischnurus’ complanatus D57, K14 [=Hormurus australasiae var. complanatus T89]
              |--‘Hormurus’ dechangei K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ insculptus K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ karschii Koch & Keyserling 1884-1885 KK84
              |    |--H. k. karschii K14
              |    `--H. k. keyensis Kraepelin 1914 K14
              |--‘Ischnurus’ neocaledonicus Simon 1877 [=Hormurus neocaledonicus] K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ nigripes Pocock 1897 K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ papuanus Kraepelin 1914 K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ sarasini Kraepelin 1914 K14
              |--‘Hormurus’ waigiensis K14
              `--‘Hormurus’ weberi K14

‘Hormurus’ caudicula (Koch 1867) [=Ischnurus caudicula; incl. Scorpio (Ischnurus) waigiensis Gervais 1844] KK84

Liocheles Sundevall 1833 FB01 [incl. Hormurus Thorell 1876 FB01, Ischnurus Koch 1837 FB01; Hormurini, Ischnurini T94]

*Liocheles australasiae (Fabricius 1775) FB01 [=Scorpio australasiae FB01, Hormurus australasiae K14, Ischnurus australasiae FB01; incl. H. australasiae var. suspecta Thorell 1888 K14]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 309-338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[AO02] Acosta, L. E., & J. A. Ochoa. 2002. Lista de los escorpiones bolivianos (Chelicerata: Scorpiones), con notas sobre su distribución. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61 (3-4): 15-23.

[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464-467.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185-189.

[CL01] Carvalho, M. da G. P. de, & W. R. Lourenço. 2001. A new family of fossil scorpions from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. Comptes Rendus de L’Academie des Sciences Serie II Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 332: 711-716.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5-6): 399-434, plates 1-2.

[FB01] Fet, V., & G. Bechly. 2001. Liochelidae, fam. nov. (Scorpiones): Proposed introduction as a substitute name for Ischnuridae Simon, 1879, as an alternative to the suggested amendment of Ischnurinae Fraser, 1957 (Insecta, Odonata) to Ischnurainae in order to remove homonymy. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 58 (4): 280-281.

[G63] Glauert, L. 1963. Notes on Urodacus scorpions. Western Australian Naturalist 8 (6): 132-135.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81-91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267-310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K14] Kraepelin, K. 1914. Die Skorpione und Pedipalpen von Neu-Caledonien und den benachbarten Inselgruppen. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 327-337. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

Prendini, L. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the superfamily Scorpionoidea Latreille 1802 (Chelicerata, Scorpiones): an exemplar approach. ''Cladistics'' 16: 1-78.

[S-BF04] Santiago-Blay, J. A., V. Fet, M. E. Soleglad & P. R. Craig. 2004. The second Cretaceous scorpion specimen from Burmese amber (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (2): 147-152.

[SS08] Sarmento, S. M. N., A. M. de Souza, M. V. Meiado & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Notes on the life history traits of Rhopalurus rochai (Scorpiones, Buthidae) under different feeding regimes. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 476-479.

[S00] Shultz, J. W. 2000. Skeletomuscular anatomy of the harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi (Weed, 1893) (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores) and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 401-438.

[S07] Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150 (2): 221-265.

[SM90] Smith, G. T., & S. R. Morton. 1990. Responses by scorpions to fire-initiates succession in arid Australian spinifex grasslands. Journal of Arachnology 18: 241-244.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: A cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1-38.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI. – Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885-1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 521-729.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1-63.

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