Bittium


Shells of Bittium reticulatum. Photo by Steve Trewhella.


Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

Bittium is a genus of small high-spired gastropods found primarily in cold and temperate waters in the eastern Atlantic. Like the related genus Cerithium, Bittium has been confused with other similar taxa in the past. Small Cerithium, in particular, have often been identified as Bittium, but Cerithium has a single primary spiral cord on its whorls while Bittium has two cords apically becoming four distally (Houbrick 1993).

Characters (from Houbrick 1993): "Shell small, elongate, with short anterior canal and sculptured with 4-5 spiral cords with many aligned small beads formed where axial riblets are crossed by spirals. Operculum circular, paucispiral with subcentral nucleus. Epipodial skirt with many small, short papillae. Opercular lobe with small pointed papillae. Well-developed ovipositor comprising parallel glandular ridges and bisected by egg-laying gutter on right side of foot near edge of epipodial skirt. Osphradium ridge-like, weakly monopectinate, one-half the ctenidial length. Openings to sperm bursa well separated from opening to seminal receptacle."

<==Bittium Leach ex Gray 1847 O27 [Bittiidae, Bittiinae]
    |  i. s.: B. cylindricum Watson 1881 WG71
    |         B. diplax Watson 1886 H09
    |         B. elegantissimum (Hedley 1899) [=Cerithium elegantissimum] H09
    |         B. perparvulum Watson 1886 H09
    |         B. porcellanum Watson 1886 H09
    |         B. proteum (Jousseaume 1930) BD86
    |         B. pupiforme Watson 1880 H09
    |         B. xanthum Watson 1886 H09
    |         B. zebrum (Kiener 1842) [=Cerithium zebrum] H09
    |--B. (Bittium) O27
    |    |--*B. (B.) reticulatum [=Cerithium reticulatum] O27
    |    `--B. (B.) johnstonae Bartsch 1911 O27
    |--B. (Lirobittium Bartsch 1911) O27
    |    |--B. (L.) asperum O27
    |    |    |--B. a. asperum O27
    |    |    `--B. a. lomaense Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (L.) catalinense Bartsch 1907 O27
    |    |    |--B. c. catalinense O27
    |    |    `--B. c. inornatum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (L.) fetellum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (L.) interfossa (Carpenter 1864) [=Rissoa interfossa] O27
    |    |--B. (L.) larum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (L.) munitum (Carpenter 1864) [=Cerithiopsis munita] O27
    |    |    |--B. m. munitum O27
    |    |    `--B. m. munitoide Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (L.) oldroydi Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    `--B. (L.) ornatissimum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |--B. (Semibittium Cossmann 1896) O27
    |    |--B. (S.) armillatum Carpenter 1864 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) attenuatum Carpenter 1864 O27
    |    |    |--B. a. attenuatum O27
    |    |    |--B. a. boreale Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |    |--B. a. latifilosum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |    `--B. a. multifilosum Bartsch 1907 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) challisae Bartsch 1917 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) purpureum (Carpenter 1864) [=Cerithiopsis purpurea] O27
    |    |--B. (S.) quadrifilatum Carpenter 1864 O27
    |    |    |--B. q. quadrifilatum O27
    |    |    `--B. q. ingens Bartsch 1907 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) rugatum Carpenter 1866 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) sanjuanensis Bartsch 1917 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) serra Bartsch 1917 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) subplanatum Bartsch 1911 O27
    |    |--B. (S.) tumidum Bartsch 1907 O27
    |    `--B. (S.) vancouverense Dall & Bartsch 1910 O27
    `--B. (Stylidium Dall 1907) O27
         |--B. (S.) eschrichtii Middendorff 1849 O27
         |    |--B. e. eschrichtii O27
         |    |--B. e. icelum Bartsch 1907 O27
         |    `--B. e. montereyense Bartsch 1907 O27
         `--B. (S.) paganicum Dall 1919 O27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117-141.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

Houbrick, R. S. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships and generic review of the Bittiinae (Prosobranchia: Cerithioidea). Malacologia 35 (2): 261-313.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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