Tarphycerida

Discoceras antiquissimum, from here.


Belongs within: Cephalopoda.
Contains: Lituites.

The Lower Ordovician to Upper Devonian Tarphycerida were the earliest lineage of coiled cephalopods. In a number of forms, the later whorls become separated from the older part of the shell; in the family Lituitidae the later part of the shell becomes straight and much larger than the coiled part. The siphuncle is subventral in earlier parts of the shell, but moves during growth depending on the family: in Tarphyceratidae and Estonioceratidae it remains ventral at maturity, in Trocholitidae it becomes dorsal, and in Lituitidae and Ophioceras it becomes subcentral (Furnish & Glenister 1964).

See also: When is a cephalopod like a snake?

Characters (from Furnish & Glenister 1964): Coiled conchs with varying degrees of adoral divergence; septa simple, siphuncle unstable in position; septal necks orthochoanitic, connecting rings layered; aperture characterised by prominent hyponomic sinus; fully mature aperture commonly modified. [These characters apply to early Tarphycerida; in later forms (the 'Barrandeocerida') they were often modified.]

<==Tarphycerida [Tarphyceratida, Tarphyceratina]
    |--Ophioceras Barrande 1865 (see below for synonymy) FG64
    |    |--*O. simplex (Barrande 1865) [=Lituites (*Ophioceras) simplex, *Euophioceras simplex] FG64
    |    |--O. reticulatum FG64
    |    |--O. rota FG64
    |    |--O. rudens FG64
    |    `--‘Ophidioceras’ wilmingtonense Foerste 1925 P68
    |--Lituitidae [Lituidae] FG64
    |    |--Ancistroceras Boll 1857 [=Strombolituites Remelé 1881] FG64
    |    |    `--*A. undulatum (Boll 1857) [=Lituites (*Ancistroceras) undulatum, *Strombolituites undulatus] FG64
    |    |--Angelinoceras Hyatt 1894 FG64
    |    |    `--*A. latum (Angelin in Angelin & Lindström 1880) [=Lituites latus] FG64
    |    |--Cyclolituites Remelé 1886 FG64
    |    |    |--*C. applanatus (Remelé 1880) [=Lituites applanatus] FG64
    |    |    `--C. bowningensis Etheridge 1904 F71
    |    |--Holmiceras Hyatt 1894 [=Holmoceras Flower 1955] FG64
    |    |    `--*H. praecurrens (Holm 1891) [=Lituites praecurrens] FG64
    |    |--Tyrioceras Strand 1934 FG64
    |    |    `--*T. kjerulfi Strand 1934 FG64
    |    |--Rhynchorthoceras Remelé 1881 (see below for synonymy) FG64
    |    |    |--*R. breynii (Boll 1857) [=Lituites breynii, *Ancistroceras breynii] FG64
    |    |    `--R. beyrichii FG64
    |    |--Trilacinoceras Sweet 1958 FG64
    |    |    |--*T. discors (Holm 1891) [=Lituites discors] FG64
    |    |    `--T. norvegicum FG64
    |    `--Lituites FG64
    |--Estonioceratidae FG64
    |    |--Aethoceras Teichert & Glenister 1954 [incl. Aetococeras Balashov 1962] FG64
    |    |    `--*A. caurus Teichert & Glenister 1954 FG64
    |    |--Alaskoceras Miller & Kummel 1945 FG64
    |    |    `--*A. sewardense (Flower 1941) [=Plectoceras sewardense] FG64
    |    |--Clytoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
    |    |    `--*C. capax Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
    |    |--Eichwaldoceras Balashov 1955 FG64
    |    |    `--*E. volchovense Balashov 1955 FG64
    |    |--Tragoceras Remelé 1890 [=Aegoceras Remelé 1880 non Waagen 1869, Planctoceras Schröder 1891] FG64
    |    |    `--*T. falcatum (von Schlotheim 1820) (see below for synonymy) FG64
    |    |--Shumardoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
    |    |    |--*S. complanatum (Shumard 1863) [=Lituites complanata] FG64
    |    |    |--S. fragile Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    `--S. taneyense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |--Pycnoceras Hyatt 1894 [=Pyrenoceras (l. c.)] FG64
    |    |    |--*P. apertum Hyatt 1894 FG64
    |    |    |--P. clausum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    `--P. rotundatum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |--Estonioceras Noetling 1883 [incl. Falcilituites Remelé 1886] FG64
    |    |    |--*E. lamellosum (Hisinger 1837) [=Lituites lamellosus] FG64
    |    |    |--E. ariense FG64
    |    |    `--‘Lituites’ decheni Remelé 1880 [=*Falcilituites decheni] FG64
    |    `--Aphetoceras Hyatt 1894 FG64
    |         |--*A. americanum Hyatt 1894 FG64
    |         |--A. attenuatum FG64
    |         |--A. evolution Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         |--A. oderi Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         |--A. ruedemanni Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         `--A. subcostulatum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |--Tarphyceratidae FG64
    |    |--Moreauoceras Cullison 1944 FG64
    |    |    `--*M. milleri Cullison 1944 FG64
    |    |--Pilotoceras Cullison 1944 FG64
    |    |    `--*P. brunei Cullison 1944 FG64
    |    |--Seelyoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
    |    |    `--*S. raei (Whitfield 1889) [=Cyrtoceras raei] FG64
    |    |--Cycloplectoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
    |    |    |--*C. miseri Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
    |    |    `--C. funatum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |--Eurystomites Schröder 1891 FG64
    |    |    |--*E. kelloggi (Whitfield 1886) [=Nautilus kelloggi] FG64
    |    |    |--E. avensis Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    |--E. bolarensis Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    `--E. rotundus Hyatt 1894 P68
    |    |--Pionoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
    |    |    |--*P. pomponium (Billings 1862) [=Nautilus pomponius] FG64
    |    |    |--P. smithvillense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    |--P. swartzi Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    `--P. vokesi Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |--Campbelloceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
    |    |    |--*C. virginianum (Hyatt 1894) [=Eurystomites virginiana] FG64
    |    |    |--C. brevicameratum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    |--C. hyatti Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    `--C. rotundum FG64
    |    |--Tarphyceras Hyatt 1894 [incl. Remeleceras Hyatt 1894 (n. d.), Remeleoceras Hyatt in Zittel 1900] FG64
    |    |    |--*T. prematurum Hyatt 1894 FG64
    |    |    |--T. aucoini FG64
    |    |    |--T. chadwickense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |    |    |--T. champlainense P68
    |    |    |--*Remeleceras’ depressum Hyatt 1894 (n. d.) T64
    |    |    `--T. macdonaldi Hyatt 1894 P68
    |    `--Centrotarphyceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
    |         |--*C. seelyi (Whitfield 1886) [=Lituites seelyi] FG64
    |         |--C. alpheusi Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         |--C. bridgei Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         |--C. macdonaldi P68
    |         |--C. powersi Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         |--C. subundosum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    |         `--C. vellvillense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
    `--Trocholitidae [Beekmanoceratidae, Trocholithidae] FG64
         |--Arkoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 [=Arcoceras (l. c.)] FG64
         |    `--*A. exiguum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |--Beekmanoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
         |    `--*B. priscum (Ruedemann 1906) [=Cyrtendoceras priscum] FG64
         |--Graftonoceras Foerste 1925 FG64
         |    `--*G. graftonense (Meek & Worthen 1870) [=Lituites graftonensis] FG64
         |--Hardmanoceras Teichert & Glenister 1952 FG64
         |    `--*H. lobatum Teichert & Glenister 1952 FG64
         |--Jasperoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |    `--*J. costatum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |--Curtoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |    |--*C. eatoni (Whitfield 1886) [=Lituites eatoni] FG64
         |    `--C. internastriatum FG64
         |--Litoceras Hyatt 1883 [=Litoceres (l. c.); incl. Litoceras Hyatt 1894 non Hyatt 1883] FG64
         |    |--*L. versutum (Billings 1865) [=Nautilus versutus] FG64
         |    `--*L. (sensu Hyatt 1894) whiteavesi Hyatt 1894 FG64
         |--Wichitoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |    |--*W. compressum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 FG64
         |    |--W. chadwickense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    |--W. crassum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    |--W. decipiens Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    `--W. naylorense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |--Trocholitoceras Hyatt 1894 FG64
         |    |--*T. walcotti Hyatt 1894 FG64
         |    |--T. bevani Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    |--T. juvenicostatum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    |--T. latum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |    `--T. philipsburgense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1942 P68
         |--Trocholites Conrad 1838 (see below for synonymy) FG64
         |    |--*T. ammonius Conrad 1838 FG64
         |    |    |--T. a. ammonius P68
         |    |    `--T. a. major Ruedemann 1926 P68
         |    |--*Palaeonautilus’ hospes Remelé 1880 FG64
         |    |--T. planorbiformis Conrad 1842 [=*Palaeoclymenia planorbiformis] FG64
         |    |--T. trapezoidale (Lossen 1860) [=Lituites trapezoidale] H84
         |    `--T. undatus [=Lituites undatus] H84
         `--Discoceras Barrande 1867 [incl. Eurasiaticoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935, Schroederoceras Hyatt 1894] FG64
              |--*D. antiquissimum (Eichwald 1842) [=Clymenia antiquissima] FG64
              |--D. angulatum (Saemann 1852) FG64 (see below for synonymy)
              |--D. boreale FG64
              |--D. canadense P68
              |--‘Schroederoceras’ cassinense P68
              |--‘Schroederoceras’ eatoni P68
              `--D. eurasiaticum Frech 1911 [=*Eurasiaticoceras eurasiaticum] FG64

Discoceras angulatum (Saemann 1852) FG64 [=Lituites angulatus FG64, *Schroederoceras angulatum FG64, Trocholites angulatus H84]

Ophioceras Barrande 1865 [=Euophioceras Miller 1932, Ophidioceras Barrande 1867; Ophidioceratidae, Ophioceratidae] FG64

Rhynchorthoceras Remelé 1881 [=Ancistroceras Remelé 1881 non Boll 1857, Rhynchoceras Remelé 1881, Rhyncorthoceras (l. c.)] FG64

*Tragoceras falcatum (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Orthoceratites falcatus, *Aegoceras falcatum, *Planctoceras falcatum] FG64

Trocholites Conrad 1838 [=Trocholithes (l. c.); incl. Palaeoclymenia Remelé 1881, Palaeonautilus Remelé 1880] FG64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FG64] Furnish, W. M., & B. F. Glenister. 1964. Nautiloidea—Tarphycerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K343-K368. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[H84] Hyatt, A. 1883-1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Boston Soc. Nat. History, Proc. 22: 253-338.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[T64] Teichert, C. 1964. Doubtful taxa. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K484-K490. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

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