Hercules Club mud whelks Pyrazus ebeninus on sea-grass bed. Photo from here.

Belongs within: Cerithioidea.

The Batillariidae are a family of high-spired marine gastropods found within the tide zone in mud and muddy sand.

Characters (from Strong et al., in press): Shell with flaring outer lip on aperture. Long efferent ctenidial vein between gill and aperture. Radula with basal denticles on central tooth. Salivary gland complex, massive, without central lumen. Sorting area of midgut rectangular, tapering, with pointed, slightly curving rectangular tip.

    |--Batillaria Benson 1842 [Batillariidae, Batillariinae] BR05
    |    |--B. attramentaria CG99
    |    `--B. australis OC03
    |--Granulolabium GK02 [Tiaracerithiinae BR05]
    |    |  i. s.: G. plicatum (Basterot 1825) GK02
    |    `--G. (Tiaracerithium Sacco 1895) GK02, BR05
    |         `--G. (T.) pseudotiarella (d’Orbigny 1825) GK02
    |--Pyrazus Montfort 1810 [Pyrazidae] BR05
    |    |--P. cingulatus (Gmelin 1790) [=Murex cingulatus] H09
    |    |--P. ebeninus Bruguière 1792 WG71
    |    |--P. herculeus (Martyn 1784) [=Clava herculea] H09
    |    |--P. layardi (Adams 1855) [=Cerithium layardi] H09
    |    |--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1767) [=Strombus palustris] H09
    |    |--P. semistriatus F66
    |    |--P. sulcatus (Born 1778) [=Murex sulcatus] H09
    |    `--P. telescopium (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus telescopium] H09
    `--Velacumantus Iredale 1936 HJ08, WG71
         `--V. australis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) HJ08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315-338.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43-57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1-44.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733-755.

Strong, E. E., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, C. Lydeard, W. F. Ponder & M. Glaubrecht. in press. Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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