Hercules Club mud whelks Pyrazus ebeninus on sea-grass bed. Photo from here.

Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Batillariidae are a family of high-spired marine gastropods found within the tide zone in mud and muddy sand. Members have a flaring outer lip on the aperture.

    |--Granulolabium GK02 [Tiaracerithiinae BR05]
    |    |  i. s.: G. plicatum (Basterot 1825) GK02
    |    `--G. (Tiaracerithium Sacco 1895) GK02, BR05
    |         `--‘Cerithium’ thiarella Grateloup 1832 BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Batillaria Benson 1842 [Batillariinae] BR05
    |    |--*B. zonalis (Bruguière 1792) [=Cerithium zonale] BR17
    |    |--B. attramentaria CG99
    |    |--B. australis OC03
    |    |--B. cumingi ZLK11
    |    |--B. (Vicinocerithium) inopinata (Deshayes 1864) TTE93
    |    `--B. minima (Gmelin 1791) S11
    `--Pyrazus Montfort 1810 [Pyrazidae] BR05
         |--*P. baudini Montfort 1810 BR17
         |--P. ebeninus Bruguière 1792 WG71
         |--P. herculeus (Martyn 1784) [=Clava herculea] H09
         |--P. incisus C64
         |--P. layardi (Adams 1855) [=Cerithium layardi] H09
         |--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1767) [=Strombus palustris] H09
         |--P. scalariformis TTE93
         |--P. semistriatus F66
         `--P. sulcatus (Born 1778) [=Murex sulcatus] H09

‘Cerithium’ thiarella Grateloup 1832 BR17 [=C. pseudotiarella d’Orbigny 1852 BR17, Granulolabium (*Tiaracerithium) pseudotiarella GK02, BR17]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733-755.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 18 May 2021.

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