Reconstruction of the Lower Permian tainoceratid Cooperoceras texanum that has been used as the logo of the Earth, Life and Time project at Maryland University (offhand, of the Cooperoceras reconstructions I've seen online, this is the best one: others either make the animal look to much like a coleoid rather than a nautiloid [not impossible phylogenetically, but not likely], or fail to show the large open umbilicus characteristic of this genus).

Belongs within: Tainoceratoidea.

The Tainoceratidae were a large and varied family of nautilids that lived from the Carboniferous to the Triassic. Many of its members were more ornamentated than their contemporaries in other families; almost all late Palaeozoic and Triassic nautiloids with ornamentation of ribs and/or nodes belong to this family. The tainoceratids can be divided between two main lineages. In one, including Metacoceras and its derivatives, the whorls are subquadrate in cross-section with nodes on the ventral or umbilical shoulders. In the other, derived from Pleuronautilus, the main ornamentation is ribs (Kummel 1964).

Characteristics (from Kummel 1964): Conch generally evolute, large; whorls quadrate to rectangular. Suture only slightly sinuous, siphuncle usually near centre.

<==Tainoceratidae [Encoiloceratidae, Gyroceratinae, Gzheloceratidae, Mosquoceratidae, Pleuronautilidae, Pleuronautilinae]
    |--+--Encoiloceras Hyatt in Zittel 1900 K64
    |  |    `--*E. superbum (Mojsisovics 1873) [=Nautilus superbus] K64
    |  |--Anoploceras Hyatt in Zittel 1900 K64
    |  |    `--*A. ampezzanum (Loretz 1875) [=Nautilus ampezzanus] K64
    |  |--Enoploceras Hyatt in Zittel 1900 K64
    |  |    `--*E. wulfeni (Mojsisovics 1873) K64 [=Nautilus wulfeni K64, Mojsvaroceras wulfeni H84]
    |  |--Holconautilus Mojsisovics 1902 K64
    |  |    `--*H. semicostatus (Beyrich 1867) [=Nautilus semicostatus] K64
    |  |--Phaedrysmocheilus Shimanskiy & Erlanger 1955 K64
    |  |    `--*P. subaratum (Keyserling 1860) [=Nautilus subaratus] K64
    |  |--Phloioceras Hyatt 1884 K64
    |  |    `--*P. gemmatum (Mojsisovics 1873) [=Nautilus gemmatus] K64
    |  |--Trachynautilus Mojsisovics 1902 [=Trachinautilus (l. c.)] K64
    |  |    `--*T. subgemmatus (Mojsisovics 1882) [=Pleuronautilus subgemmatus] K64
    |  |--Tainionautilus Mojsisovics 1902 K64
    |  |    `--*T. transitorius (Waagen 1879) K64 [=Nautilus transitorius K64, Solenoceras transitoriuum H84]
    |  `--Pleuronautilus Mojsisovics 1882 (see below for synonymy) K64
    |       |--*P. trinodosus Mojsisovics 1882 K64
    |       `--P. multicostatus Etheridge 1907 F71
    `--+--Mojsvaroceras Hyatt 1883 [=Mojsisoceras von Zittel 1884] K64
       |    `--*M. neumayri (Mojsisovics 1882) [=Temnocheilus neumayri] K64
       |--Aulametacoceras Miller & Unklesbay 1942 K64
       |    `--*A. mckeei Miller & Unklesbay 1942 K64
       |--Tirolonautilus Mojsisovics 1902 K64
       |    `--*T. crux (Stache 1877) [=Nautilus crux] K64
       |--Tylonautilus Pringle & Jackson 1928 K64
       |    `--*T. nodiferus (Armstrong 1866) [=Nautilus (Discites) nodiferus] K64
       |--Cooperoceras Miller 1945 K64
       |    `--*C. texanum Miller 1945 K64
       |--Thuringionautilus Mojsisovics 1902 K64
       |    `--*T. jugatonodosus (Zimmermann 1892) [=Trematodiscus jugatonodosus] K64
       |--Germanonautilus Mojsisovics 1902 [=Monilifer Fritsch 1906] K64
       |    |--*G. bidorsatus (von Schlotheim 1820) K64, KL04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--G. breunneri K64
       |    |--G. dolomiticus KL04
       |    |--G. salinarius (Mojsisovics 1882) KL04
       |    |--G. suevicus Philippi 1898 KL04
       |    `--G. tridorsatus (Böttcher 1938) KL04
       |--Tainoceras Hyatt 1883 K64, SLE01 [Tainoceratinae]
       |    |--*T. quadrangulum (McChesney 1860) [=Nautilus quadrangulus] K64
       |    |--T. changlingpuense Chao 1954 SLE01
       |    |--T. clydense Miller & Kemp 1947 P68
       |    |--T. orientale (Kayser 1883) SLE01
       |    |--T. subquadratum Liang in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
       |    |--T. wyomingense K64
       |    `--T. zhesiense Liang in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
       `--Metacoceras Hyatt 1883 [incl. Mosquoceras Ruzhentsev & Shimanskiy 1954] K64
            |--*M. sangamonense (Meek & Worthen 1861) [=Nautilus (Discus) sangamonensis] K64
            |--M. aberrans Miller & Unklesbay 1942 P68
            |--M. biseriatum P68
            |--M. bituberculatum Miller & Youngquist 1949 P68
            |--M. cheneyi Miller & Youngquist 1947 P68
            |--M. cooperi Miller 1945 P68
            |--M. cornutum Girty 1911 P68
            |    |--M. c. cornutum P68
            |    |--M. c. carinatum Girty 1911 P68
            |    |--M. c. multituberculatum Girty 1911 P68
            |    `--M. c. sinuosum Girty 1911 P68
            |--M. dubium K64
            |--M. gregarium Miller 1945 P68
            |--M. hayi Hyatt 1891 P68
            |--M. inconspicuum Hyatt 1891 P68
            |--M. magnicostatum Miller 1945 P68
            |--M. marylandica Lintz 1958 P68
            |--M. mutatum Miller 1945 P68
            |--M. occidentale [=Lituites occidentalis] H84
            |--M. perelegans Girty 1911 P68
            |--M. sculptile Girty 1911 P68
            `--M. walcotti Hyatt 1891 P68

Tainoceratidae incertae sedis:
  Gzheloceras Ruzhentsev & Shimanskiy 1954 K64
    `--*G. uralense Ruzhentsev & Shimanskiy 1954 K64
  Hexagonites Hayasaka 1947 K64
    `--*H. chechiangensis Hayasaka 1947 K64
  Hunanoceras Chao 1954 K64
    `--*H. globosum Chao 1954 K64
  Parametacoceras Miller & Owen 1934 K64
    `--*P. bellatulum Miller & Owen 1934 K64
  Tanchiashanites Chao 1954 K64
    `--*T. marginalis Chao 1954 K64

*Germanonautilus bidorsatus (von Schlotheim 1820) K64, KL04 [=Nautilus bidorsatus K64, *Monilifer bidorsatus K64, Temnocheilus bidorsatus TMNZ64]

Pleuronautilus Mojsisovics 1882 [incl. Basleonautilus Ruzhentsev & Shimanskiy 1954, Huanghoceras Grabau in Yin 1933, Pseudofoordiceras Ruzhentsev & Shimanskiy 1954, Shansinautilus Yabe & Mabuti 1935, Tuangkuanoceras Hayasaka 1947] K64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[H84] Hyatt, A. 1883-1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Boston Soc. Nat. History, Proc. 22: 253-338.

[KL04] Klug, C. & A. Lehmkuhl. 2004. Soft-tissue attachment structures and taphonomy of the Middle Triassic nautiloid Germanonautilus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 243-258.

[K64] Kummel, B. 1964. Nautiloidea—Nautilida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K383-K457. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[SLE01] Sone, M., M. S. Leman & M. Ehino. 2001. Middle Permian cephalopods from central Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for faunal migration through the southern Tethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 19: 805-814.

[TMNZ64] Teichert, C., R. C. Moore & D. E. Nodine Zeller. 1964. Rhyncholites. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda—General Features—Endoceratoidea—Actinoceratoidea—Nautiloidea—Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K467-K484. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

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