Male buzzer midge Chironomus plumosus, copyright Didier Descouens.

Belongs within: Chironomidae.

Chironomus is a cosmopolitan genus of midges. It is distinguished from related genera by features of the male genitalia, with long setae (often basally) on appendage 1 (Oliver 1981). Larvae inhabit soft sediments and other underwater organic deposits (Spies et al. 2009).

Characters (from Oliver 1981): Male antenna with eleven flagellomeres. Antepronotal lobes not separated medially. Wing with crossvein r-m definitely oblique to R4+5; crossvein m-cu absent. Apex of fore tibia with inner low rounded scale that projects slightly beyond similar outer scale; hind tibia with two combs composed of basally fused spines. Male terminalia with gonocoxite and gonostylus separate; appendage 1 with basal long setae, or rarely with long setae only on apical two-thirds, without enlarged setiferous base; appendage 2 subcylindrical, longer than appendage 1, with many apical setae.

<==Chironomus Meigen 1803 [incl. Tendipes Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.)] O81
    |--C. acutiventris R86
    |    |--C. a. acutiventris R86
    |    `--C. a. bavaricus R86
    |--C. alternans CM91
    |--C. atroviridis O81
    |--C. australis CM91
    |--C. frigidus T04
    |--C. intertinctus W70
    |--C. limnaei A71
    |--C. (Lobochironomus) montuosus SA09
    |--C. pedellus D56
    |--C. plumosus SA09 [=Tendipes plumosus CS77]
    |--C. prasinus BBM91
    |--‘Tendipes’ reductus CS77
    |--C. riparius SA09
    |--C. silvestris [incl. C. silvestris var. ornatus] K01
    |--C. singulatus OV95
    |--C. (Chironomus) staegeri SA09
    |--C. tentans MG06
    |--C. tepperi WT11
    |--C. thummi B91
    |--C. venerabilis Etheridge & Olliff 1890 F71
    `--C. zealandicus B87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B91] Baker, R. A. 1991. Development and life-history strategies in mussel mites (Hydrachnellae: Unionicolidae). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 65–73. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BBM91] Baker, R. A., S. Brett & N. Morley. 1991. Water mite larvae parasitic on insects—a study of larval structures and host relationships. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 493–496. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B87] Boothroyd, I. K. G. 1987. Taxonomic composition and life cycles of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a northern New Zealand stream. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 29: 15–22.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[OV95] Ovčarenko, N. A., & I. Vima. 1995. [Issia singulati sp. n. (Microsporidia, Telomyxidae): a new species of Microsporidia from Chironomus singulatus Meigen larvae from Kiev’s water reservoir]. Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 31 (5): 78–83.

[R86] Reiss, F. 1986. Erster Nachtrag zur Chironomidenfauna Bayerns (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 175–178.

[SA09] Spies, M., T. Andersen, J. H. Epler & C. N. Watson Jr. 2009. Chironomidae (non-biting midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 437–480. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pt 1. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 25 April 2019.

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