Chinese hackberry Celtis sinensis, copyright Geographer.

Belongs within: Rosidae.
Contains: Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae.

The Rosales is a clade of flowering plants uniting the Rosaceae with members of the previously recognised orders Rhamnales and Urticales. Members of the latter group are commonly wind-pollinated.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): mucilage cells present; roots diarch; prismatic crystals in ray cells (absent in Barbeyaceae and Elaeagnaceae); inflorescence cymose; hypanthium present, nectariferous, sepals valvate, petals clawed; stigma dry; ovule 1/carpel, epitropous, micropyle endostomal; calyx and/or hypanthium persistent in fruit.

    |--Rosaceae WM09
    `--+--Rhamnales T00
       |    |--Rhamnaceae WM09
       |    |--Dirachma [Dirachmaceae] T00
       |    |--Barbeya [Barbeyaceae, Barbeyales, Barbeyanae] T00
       |    `--Elaeagnaceae [Elaeagnales] T00
       |         |--Shepherdia T00
       |         |--Lepargyraea YY22
       |         |--Elaeagnus WM09
       |         |    |--E. multiflora LO98
       |         |    `--E. pungens RS99
       |         `--Hippophae T00
       |              |--H. rhamnoides BBM02
       |              `--H. tibetana O88
       `--Urticales HQC03
            |  i. s.: Cecropia K06 [Cecropiaceae HQC03]
            |           |--C. exima K06
            |           `--C. peltata K06
            |--Ulmaceae WM09
            `--+--+--Urticaceae WM09
               |  `--Moraceae WM09
               `--+--Cannabaceae [Cannabineae] WM09
                  |    |--Cannabis sativa HQC03
                  |    |--Humulus lupulus HQC03
                  |    `--Humulopsis T00
                  `--Celtidaceae WM09
                       |--Aphananthe aspera T00, LO98
                       `--Celtis HQC03
                            |--C. australis R-CT01 [incl. C. tournefortii H91]
                            |--C. begonioides HL08
                            |--C. occidentalis WM09
                            |--C. pallida PB83
                            |--C. philippensis J06
                            |--C. sinensis HQC03
                            |    |--C. s. var. sinensis LO98
                            |    `--C. s. var. japonica LO98
                            `--C. tetrandra BBO01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798-810.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331-343.

[HQC03] Hadiah, J. T., C. J. Quinn & B. J. Conn. 2003. Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data. Telopea 10 (1): 235-246.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229-251.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PB83] Price, M. V. & J. H. Brown. 1983. Patterns of morphology and resource use in North American desert rodent communities. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 7: 117-134.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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