Pear Pyrus communis 'Pepi', copyright Tauno Erik.

Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Rhamnaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae, Celtidaceae, Crataegus, Cotoneaster, Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Prunus, Sorbus.

The Rosales is a clade of flowering plants uniting the Rosaceae with members of the previously recognised orders Rhamnales and Urticales. Members of the latter group are commonly wind-pollinated. Cecropia, a Neotropical genus of trees with large, circular, palmately lobed leaves, is a prominent member of the rainforest flora within its distribution. The Cannabaceae are a small family uniting two widely cultivated species, Cannabis sativa (marijuana) and Humulus lupulus (hops).

The Rosaceae are a diverse group of plants with typically five petals and sepals to a flower, and usually with numerous stamens forming a complete ring within the flower. They vary from trees to herbs and climbers and are cosmopolitan in distribution but most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere temperate zone. The Rosaceae are divided between four subfamilies, distinguishing features of which include the fruits: Rosoideae generally produce aggregate fruits whereas Amygdaloideae produce drupes and Maloideae produce pomes. The Spiraeoideae have been recognised as a group of shrubs mostly producing aggregate fruits, but monophyly of this group is uncertain. Commercially significant members of the Maloideae include the apple Malus pumila and the pears of the genus Pyrus.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): mucilage cells present; roots diarch; prismatic crystals in ray cells (absent in Barbeyaceae and Elaeagnaceae); inflorescence cymose; hypanthium present, nectariferous, sepals valvate, petals clawed; stigma dry; ovule 1/carpel, epitropous, micropyle endostomal; calyx and/or hypanthium persistent in fruit.

Rosales WM09
    |--+--Rhamnales T00
    |  |    |--Rhamnaceae WM09
    |  |    |--Dirachma [Dirachmaceae] T00
    |  |    |--Barbeya [Barbeyaceae, Barbeyales, Barbeyanae] T00
    |  |    `--Elaeagnaceae T00
    |  `--Urticales HQC03
    |       |  i. s.: Cecropia WI-B09 [Cecropiaceae HQC03]
    |       |           |--C. exima K06
    |       |           |--C. obtusifolia WI-B09
    |       |           |--C. peltata K06
    |       |           |--C. pittieri RJ11
    |       |           `--C. reticulata H11
    |       |--Ulmaceae WM09
    |       `--+--+--Urticaceae WM09
    |          |  `--Moraceae WM09
    |          `--+--Celtidaceae WM09
    |             `--Cannabaceae [Cannabineae] WM09
    |                  |--Cannabis sativa [incl. C. indica, C. ruderalis] H90
    |                  |--Humulus lupulus HQC03
    |                  `--Humulopsis T00
    `--Rosaceae [Malaceae] WM09
         |  i. s.: Crataegus PCM03
         |         Mespilus germanica PCM03, R-CT01
         |         Cydonia Y98
         |           |--C. oblonga Y98
         |           |--C. sinensis C55b
         |           `--C. vulgaris C55b
         |         Osteomeles YY22
         |         Maddenia YY22
         |         Nuttalia YY22
         |         Parastemon YY22
         |         Sibiraea YY22
         |         Lecostomion YY22
         |         Eriobotrya japonica H06 [=Photinia japonica LO98]
         |         Aruncus dioicus [incl. A. sylvestris] H90
         |           |  i. s.: A. d. var. pubescens [incl. A. vulgaris] H93
         |           |--A. d. ssp. dioicus O88
         |           `--A. d. ssp. triternatus O88
         |         Cotoneaster V09
         |         Pourthiaea villosa LO98
         |           |--P. v. var. villosa LO98
         |           `--P. v. var. laevis [incl. Eleagnus longipes] LO98
         |         Photinia G07b
         |           |--P. × fraseri Dress 1961 CD07
         |           |--P. glabra LO98
         |           `--P. pyrifolia DI03
         |         Chaenomeles sinensis [=Pyrus chinensis] LO98
         |         Rhaphiolepis [=Raphiolepis] H90
         |           |--R. indica H90
         |           `--R. umbellata MH98
         |                |--R. u. var. umbellata MH98
         |                `--R. u. var. integerrima MH98
         |         Pyracantha H06
         |           |--P. angustifolia H06
         |           |--P. crenulata H06
         |           |--P. fortuneana H90
         |           `--P. rogersiana H90
         |         Micromeles Decaisne 1874 (see below for synonymy) G07b
         |           |--M. corymbifera G07b
         |           |--M. cuspidata G07b
         |           |--M. griffithii G07b
         |           |--M. meghalayensis G07b
         |           |--M. polycarpa G07b
         |           |--M. rhamnoides G07b
         |           `--M. thomsonii G07b
         |         Amelanchier H91
         |           |--A. alnifolia H93
         |           |    |--A. a. var. alnifolia H93
         |           |    |--A. a. var. pumila H93
         |           |    `--A. a. var. semiintegrifolia [incl. A. florida] H93
         |           |--A. canadensis H59
         |           |--A. ovalis H91
         |           |--A. utahensis [incl. A. utahensis ssp. covillei, A. pallida] H93
         |           `--A. vulgaris C55a
         |         Sorbaria V09
         |           |--S. sorbifolia RJ11
         |           `--S. tomentosa V09
         |         Chamaebatia H93
         |           |--C. australis H93
         |           `--C. foliolosa H93
         |         Chamaebatiaria millefolium H93
         |         Coleogyne ramosissima H93
         |         Heteromeles arbutifolia [incl. H. arbutifolia var. macrocarpa] H93
         |         Holodiscus H93
         |           |--H. discolor (see below for synonymy) H93
         |           `--H. microphyllus H93
         |                |--H. m. var. microphyllus [incl. H. microphyllus var. sericeus] H93
         |                `--H. m. var. glabrescens H93
         |         Luetkea pectinata H93
         |         Oemleria cerasiformis [=Osmaronia cerasiformis] H93
         |         Peraphyllum ramosissimum H93
         |         Petrophyton caespitosum H93
         |           |--P. c. ssp. caespitosum H93
         |           `--P. c. ssp. acuminatum H93
         |         Crataegites borealis Samylina 1960 CBH93
         |         Psilatricolporites undulatus CBH93
         |         Acia Schreb. 1791 KC01
         |         Tylosperma Botsch. 1952 KC01
         |--Rosoideae EH03
         |--Spiraeoideae T00
         |--Amygdaloideae [Amygdalaceae, Prunoideae] T00
         |    |--Exochorda T00
         |    |--Omleria T00
         |    |--Princepia T00
         |    |--Prunus EH03
         |    |--Laurocerasus caroliniana M93
         |    |--Persica C55b
         |    |    |--P. laevis C55b
         |    |    `--P. vulgaris C55b
         |    `--Amygdalus C55b
         |         |--A. communis C55b
         |         `--A. nana C55a
         `--Maloideae [Pomoideae, Pyroideae] G07a
              |--Kageneckia T00
              |--Vauquelinia californica T00, CP13
              |--Lindleya T00
              |--Porteranthus T00
              |--Sorbus G07a
              |--Docynia Decaisne 1874 G05
              |    |--D. hookeriana Decaisne 1874 G05
              |    `--D. indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 (see below for synonymy) G05
              |         |--D. i. var. indica G05
              |         `--D. i. var. griffithiana (Decaisne) Ghora 2005 [=D. griffithiana Decaisne 1874] G05
              |--Malus G07b
              |    |--M. domestica SB07
              |    |--M. fusca H93
              |    |--M. ioensis RJ11
              |    |--M. pumila FP01
              |    |--M. purpureae SB07
              |    |--M. sieboldii [incl. Pyrus toringo] LO98
              |    `--M. sylvestris SW03
              `--Pyrus G07b
                   |--P. amygdaliformis EP91
                   |--P. aria C55a
                   |--P. communis SB07
                   |--P. hondoensis TS93
                   |--P. ioensis KSM06
                   |--P. malus SW03
                   |--P. pashia H42
                   |--P. pyraster R-CT01
                   |--P. pyrifolia [incl. P. communis var. sinensis] LO98
                   `--P. serotina KC01

Docynia indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus indica Colebr. ex Wallich 1831, Cydonia indica (Wallich) Spach 1834, Eriolobus indica (Wallich) Schneid. 1906] G05

Holodiscus discolor [incl. H. boursieri, H. discolor var. delnortensis, H. discolor var. dumosus, H. discolor var. franciscanus] H93

Micromeles Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus sect. Micromeles Hooker 1878, Sorbus sect. Micromeles Rehder 1927] G07b

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 20 September 2020.

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