Hypnales

Sanionia uncinata, photographed by Algirdas.

Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Ectropothecium, Vesicularia, Isopterygium, Trachylomataceae, Hylocomiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Plagiotheciaceae, Entodontaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Pterobryaceae, Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Calliergonaceae, Hypnum, Amblystegiaceae, Leskeaceae, Thuidiaceae, Brachytheciaceae.

The Hypnales are an enormous order of over 4,000 species, over half the pleurocarpous mosses. Members of the order are divided between a large number of families, but the boundaries between many of the families are poorly defined and still being revised. In particular, the previously recognised family Hypnaceae has been indicated by molecular analyses to be widely polyphyletic. Species of the genus Sanionia have a noteworthy distribution, being found in the Arctic and Antarctic but not in the intervening tropics.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Pleurocarpous. Very slender to robust plants. Primary stems usually creeping, secondary stems procumbent to erect, branching irregular to pinnate or dendroid. Paraphyllia and/or pseudoparaphyllia present or absent. Leaves spirally arranged or complanate, linear-lanceolate to more or less orbicular, apices rounded to longly acuminate; branch leaves similar to and smaller than stem leaves or differing in shape; costa long or short, single, double or absent; cells short to linear-vermicular, usually smooth, alar cells often differentiated. Setae long, smooth or papillose; capsules erect to horizontal, ovoid to cylindrical; lid convex to highly rostrate or subulate; peristome double, perfect or variously reduced, exostome teeth papillose, not furrowed, endostome with or without tall basal membrane, cilia present or absent; calyptrae naked. Chromosome number frequently x = 10 + m or 11.

<==Hypnales [Hypnaceae]
    |--Neckerineae VH02
    |    |--Neckeraceae SK02
    |    `--Leptodontaceae SK02
    |         |--Leptodon Mohr 1803 FHH01, SK02
    |         |    |--L. longisetus FHH01
    |         |    `--L. smithii (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1803 [incl. L. australis] SK02
    |         `--Forsstroemia Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |              |--F. producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              `--F. trichomitra (Hedw.) Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |                   |--F. t. ssp. trichomitra SK02
    |                   `--F. t. ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--+--Conardia compacta VH02
       `--+--+--+--Caribaeohypnum polypterum VH02
          |  |  `--Ptilium cristacastrensis VH02
          |  `--+--Calliergonella Loeske 1911 VH02, SK02
          |     |    |--C. cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 (see below for synonymy) SK02
          |     |    `--C. lindbergii VH02
          |     `--Sanionia Loeske 1907 VH02, SK02
          |          `--S. uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 (see below for synonymy) SK02
          |               |--S. u. ssp. uncinata D03
          |               `--‘Hypnum uncinatum’ ssp. symmetricum [=Amblystegium uncinatum var. symmetricum] D03
          `--+--+--Calliergonaceae VH02
             |  `--+--Hypnum VH02
             |     `--+--‘Hygrohypnum’ montanum VH02
             |        `--Platydictya jungermannioides VH02
             `--+--+--Amblystegiaceae VH02
                |  `--+--+--+--Campylophyllum halleri VH02
                |     |  |  `--‘Hygrohypnum’ smithii VH02
                |     |  `--Tomentypnum VH02
                |     |       |--T. falcifolium VH02
                |     |       `--T. nitens VH02
                |     `--+--+--Leskeaceae VH02
                |        |  `--Thuidiaceae VH02
                |        `--Rhytidiaceae N02
                |             |--Rhytidium rugosum VH02
                |             `--Gollania N02
                |                  |--G. clarescens N02
                |                  `--G. splendens F01
                `--+--+--Brachytheciaceae VH02
                   |  `--Donrichardsia [Donrichardsiaceae] VH02
                   |       `--D. macroneuron VH02
                   `--+--Platygyrium repens VH02
                      `--Anomodontaceae SK02
                           |--Haplohymenium Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
                           |--Herpetineuron (Müll.Hal.) Cardot 1905 SK02
                           |    `--H. toccoae (Sull. & Lesq.) Cardot 1905 SK02
                           `--Anomodon Hooker & Taylor 1818 SK02
                                |--A. attenuatus VH02
                                |--A. pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                                |--A. rostratus J87
                                |--A. rugelli N02
                                `--A. thraustus N02

Hypnales incertae sedis:
  Ectropothecium SK02
  Vesicularia SK02
  Isopterygium SK02
  Trachylomataceae SK02
  Hylocomiaceae SK02
  Trachyphyllum Gepp 1901 [Pterigynandraceae] SK02
    `--T. inflexum (Harv.) Gepp 1901 [incl. Leptohymenium papuanum, T. papuanum] SK02
  Stereophyllaceae SK02
    |--Euglossophyllum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1896 SK02
    `--Stereophyllum Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--S. fuegianum D03
         |--S. radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. tavoyense (Hooker) Jaeger 1879 [=Hypnum tavoyense Hooker 1836] SG07
         `--S. wightii (Mitt.) Jaeger 1980 [=Hypnum wightii Mitt. 1859] SG07
  Myriniaceae SK02
    |--Helicodontium (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    |    `--H. capillare (Hedw.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    `--Macgregorella Bartram 1939 SK02
         `--M. indica (Broth.) Buck 1980 [=Austinia brotheri, A. luzonensis (n. n.)] SK02
  Meteoriaceae SK02
  Plagiotheciaceae SK02
  Entodontaceae SK02
  Climacium Weber & Mohr 1804 [Climaciaceae] SK02
    |--C. americanum VHJ03
    |--C. dendroides (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1804 SK02
    `--C. kindbergii VHJ03
  Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |--C. malacodes J87
    `--C. pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Trachythecium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. verrucosum (Jaeger) Fleischer 1923 [=Ectropothecium verrucosum] SK02
  Chaetomitrium Dozy & Molk. 1846 [Symphyodontaceae] SK02
    `--C. tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sematophyllaceae SK02
  Myuriaceae SK02
    |--Myurium Schimp. 1860 SK02
    `--Oedicladium Mitt. 1868 SK02
         `--O. rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--O. r. ssp. rufescens SK02
              `--‘Myurium’ r. ssp. purpuratum (Mitt.) Maschke 1976 SK02
  Cryphaeaceae SK02
  Pterobryaceae SK02
  Orthorrhynchium Reichardt 1868 [Orthorrhyngiaceae] SK02
    `--O. elegans (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1868 [=Phyllogonium elegans] SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. elegans SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--O. e. ssp. nietneri (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 SK02
  Lepyrodon Hampe 1865 [Lepyrodontaceae] SK02
    |--L. australis Hampe & Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--L. implexus D03
    |--L. lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--L. pseudolagurus Allen 1999 SK02
  Echinodium Jur. 1866 [Echinodiaceae] SK02
    |--E. hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--E. umbrosum (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 [incl. E. parvulum] SK02
  Lembophyllaceae SK02
  Sorapilla Spruce & Mitt. 1869 [Sorapillaceae] SK02
    `--S. papuana Broth. & Geh. 1900 SK02
  Taxiphyllum Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sciaromium D03
    |--S. confluens D03
    |--S. depastum Dusén 1903 D03
    `--S. gracile Dusén 1903 D03
  Rigodium D03
    |--R. nano-fasciculatum D03
    |--R. tamarix D03
    `--R. toxarion D03
  Mittenothamnium reptans J87
  Chrysohypnum diminutivum J87
  Herzogiella cylindricarpa J87

Nomina invalida: Anomodon brevissimus Broth. ex Bailey 1890 SK02
                 Rigodium carnosulum Dusén 1903 D03
                 Rigodium pseudo-thuidium Dusén 1903 D03

Anomodon pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 [=Haplohymenium pseudotriste (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1907; incl. A. brevinervis, H. brevinerve] SK02

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 [=Acrocladium cuspidatum, Calliergon cuspidatum; incl. Hypnum flexile (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Chaetomitrium tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 [incl. C. tahitense var. deplanchei (Besch.) Wijk & Margad. 1959, C. geheebii, C. nematosum] SK02

Ctenidium pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 [incl. Hyocomium pilosum (n. n.), Hypnum pilosum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Echinodium hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 [=Hypnum hispidum, Leskea hispida, Sciaromium hispidum; incl. Echinodium arboreum, S. arboreum] SK02

Forsstroemia producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 [incl. Dusenia subproducta, F. subproducta (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1905, Lasia subproducta (n. n.)] SK02

Forsstroemia trichomitra ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 [=Lasia australis, Dusenia australis, Forsstroemia australis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895; incl. Lasia australis var. stricta, F. australis var. stricta (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895] SK02

Lepyrodon lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [=Leucodon lagurus, Hypnum lagurum Menzies ex Hooker 1819 (nom. inv.), Neckera lagura, Stereodon lagurus] SK02

Oedicladium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 [=Myurium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleischer 1908] SK02

Orthorrhynchium elegans ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 [=Acroceratium cymbifolioides (n. n.), Phyllogonium cymbifolioides; incl. Orthorrhynchium thorpeanum (n. n.)] SK02

Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 [=Hypnum uncinatum, Amblystegium uncinatum, Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. 1903; incl. Hypnum contiguum Hooker & Wilson 1959 (preoc.), H. pseudouncinatum] SK02

Stereophyllum radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [incl. Euglossophyllum daemeli Müll.Hal. 1922 (n. n.), S. daemeli Fleischer 1922 (n. n.)] SK02

Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 [=Isopterygium taxirameum; incl. I. robustum, Taxiphyllum robustum, I. teysmannii] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[F01] Furuki, T. 2001. Lethocolea naruto-toganensis, a new hepatic from swamps of Japan. Bryologist 104 (2): 306-309.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K. & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 155-164.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1-21.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229-236.

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