Sanionia uncinata, photographed by Algirdas.

Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Ectropothecium, Vesicularia, Isopterygium, Trachylomataceae, Hylocomiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Plagiotheciaceae, Entodontaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Pterobryaceae, Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Calliergonaceae, Hypnum, Anomodontaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Amblystegiaceae, Leskeaceae, Thuidiaceae.

The Hypnales are an enormous order of over 4,000 species, over half the pleurocarpous mosses. Members of the order are divided between a large number of families, but the boundaries between many of the families are poorly defined and still being revised. In particular, the previously recognised family Hypnaceae has been indicated by molecular analyses to be widely polyphyletic. Species of the genus Sanionia have a noteworthy distribution, being found in the Arctic and Antarctic but not in the intervening tropics. Other subgroups of the Hypnales include the Leptodontaceae, epiphytic mosses characterised by a distinctive branching pattern with clusters of branches alternating with unbranched intervals bearing inflorescences.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Pleurocarpous. Very slender to robust plants. Primary stems usually creeping, secondary stems procumbent to erect, branching irregular to pinnate or dendroid. Paraphyllia and/or pseudoparaphyllia present or absent. Leaves spirally arranged or complanate, linear-lanceolate to more or less orbicular, apices rounded to longly acuminate; branch leaves similar to and smaller than stem leaves or differing in shape; costa long or short, single, double or absent; cells short to linear-vermicular, usually smooth, alar cells often differentiated. Setae long, smooth or papillose; capsules erect to horizontal, ovoid to cylindrical; lid convex to highly rostrate or subulate; peristome double, perfect or variously reduced, exostome teeth papillose, not furrowed, endostome with or without tall basal membrane, cilia present or absent; calyptrae naked. Chromosome number frequently x = 10 + m or 11.

<==Hypnales [Hypnaceae]
    |--Neckerineae VH02
    |    |--Neckeraceae SK02
    |    `--Leptodontaceae SK02
    |         |--Leptodon Mohr 1803 FHH01, SK02
    |         |    |--L. longisetus FHH01
    |         |    `--L. smithii (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1803 SK02 [=Hypnum smithii D24; incl. L. australis SK02]
    |         `--Forsstroemia Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |              |--F. producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              `--F. trichomitra (Hedw.) Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |                   |--F. t. ssp. trichomitra SK02
    |                   `--F. t. ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--+--Conardia compacta VH02
       `--+--+--+--Caribaeohypnum polypterum VH02
          |  |  `--Ptilium cristacastrensis VH02 [=Hypnum crista-castrensis D24]
          |  `--+--Calliergonella Loeske 1911 VH02, SK02
          |     |    |--C. cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
          |     |    |    |--C. c. var. cuspidata D24
          |     |    |    |--‘Hypnum cuspidatum’ var. caespitosum non H. cuspidatum D24
          |     |    |    `--‘Hypnum cuspidatum’ var. pungens non H. aduncum var. pungens D24
          |     |    `--C. lindbergii VH02
          |     `--Sanionia Loeske 1907 VH02, SK02
          |          `--S. uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
          |               |  i. s.: ‘Hypnum uncinatum’ var. plumosum non H. plumosum D24
          |               |         ‘Hypnum uncinatum’ var. plumulosum D24
          |               |--S. u. ssp. uncinata D03
          |               `--‘Hypnum uncinatum’ ssp. symmetricum [=Amblystegium uncinatum var. symmetricum] D03
          `--+--+--Calliergonaceae VH02
             |  `--+--Hypnum VH02
             |     `--+--‘Hygrohypnum’ montanum VH02
             |        `--Platydictya jungermannioides VH02
             `--+--+--+--Platygyrium repens VH02
                |  |  `--Anomodontaceae VH02
                |  `--+--Brachytheciaceae VH02
                |     `--Donrichardsia [Donrichardsiaceae] VH02
                |          `--D. macroneuron VH02
                `--+--Amblystegiaceae VH02
                   `--+--+--+--Campylophyllum halleri VH02
                      |  |  `--‘Hygrohypnum’ smithii VH02
                      |  `--Tomentypnum VH02
                      |       |--T. falcifolium VH02
                      |       `--T. nitens VH02
                      `--+--+--Leskeaceae VH02
                         |  `--Thuidiaceae VH02
                         `--Rhytidiaceae N02
                              |--Rhytidium rugosum VH02
                              `--Gollania N02
                                   |--G. clarescens N02
                                   `--G. splendens F01

Hypnales incertae sedis:
  Ectropothecium SK02
  Vesicularia SK02
  Isopterygium SK02
  Trachylomataceae SK02
  Hylocomiaceae SK02
  Pterigynandraceae SK02
    |--Trachyphyllum Gepp 1901 SK02
    |    `--T. inflexum (Harv.) Gepp 1901 [incl. Leptohymenium papuanum, T. papuanum] SK02
    `--Pterigynandrum filiforme D24
         |--P. f. var. filiforme D24
         `--P. f. var. heteropterum [incl. P. filiforme var. decipiens] D24
  Stereophyllaceae SK02
    |--Euglossophyllum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1896 SK02
    `--Stereophyllum Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--S. fuegianum D03
         |--S. radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. tavoyense (Hooker) Jaeger 1879 [=Hypnum tavoyense Hooker 1836] SG07
         `--S. wightii (Mitt.) Jaeger 1980 [=Hypnum wightii Mitt. 1859] SG07
  Myriniaceae SK02
    |--Macgregorella Bartram 1939 non Seale 1909 (ICZN) SK02
    |    `--M. indica (Broth.) Buck 1980 [=Austinia brotheri, A. luzonensis (n. n.)] SK02
    `--Helicodontium (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
         |--H. capillare (Hedw.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
         `--H. pulvinatum [=Leskea pulvinata, Myrinia pulvinata] D24
  Meteoriaceae SK02
  Plagiotheciaceae SK02
  Entodontaceae SK02
  Climacium Weber & Mohr 1804 [Climaciaceae] SK02
    |--C. americanum VHJ03
    |--C. dendroides (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1804 SK02 [=Hypnum dendroides D24; incl. C. epigaeum D24]
    `--C. kindbergii VHJ03
  Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |--C. malacodes J87
    `--C. pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Trachythecium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. verrucosum (Jaeger) Fleischer 1923 [=Ectropothecium verrucosum] SK02
  Chaetomitrium Dozy & Molk. 1846 [Symphyodontaceae] SK02
    |--C. densum B57
    |--C. depressum B57
    |--C. orthorrhynchum B57
    |    |--C. o. var. orthorrhynchum B57
    |    `--C. o. var. vitiense Bartram 1957 B57
    |--C. rugifolium B57
    |--C. smithii Bartram 1957 [=C. (Leiocarpus) smithii] B57
    `--C. tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sematophyllaceae SK02
  Myuriaceae SK02
    |--Myurium Schimp. 1860 SK02
    |    `--M. hebridarum [incl. Leucodon lagurus var. borealis, Hypnum hochstetteri] D24
    `--Oedicladium Mitt. 1868 SK02
         `--O. rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--O. r. ssp. rufescens SK02
              `--‘Myurium’ r. ssp. purpuratum (Mitt.) Maschke 1976 SK02
  Cryphaeaceae SK02
  Pterobryaceae SK02
  Orthorrhynchium Reichardt 1868 [Orthorrhyngiaceae] SK02
    `--O. elegans (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1868 [=Phyllogonium elegans] SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. elegans SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--O. e. ssp. nietneri (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 SK02
  Lepyrodon Hampe 1865 [Lepyrodontaceae] SK02
    |--L. australis Hampe & Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--L. implexus D03
    |--L. lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--L. pseudolagurus Allen 1999 SK02
  Echinodium Jur. 1866 [Echinodiaceae] SK02
    |--E. hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--E. umbrosum (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 [incl. E. parvulum] SK02
  Lembophyllaceae SK02
  Sorapilla Spruce & Mitt. 1869 [Sorapillaceae] SK02
    `--S. papuana Broth. & Geh. 1900 SK02
  Taxiphyllum Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |--T. taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--T. wissgrillii M08
  Sciaromium D03
    |--S. confluens D03
    |--S. depastum Dusén 1903 D03
    `--S. gracile Dusén 1903 D03
  Rigodium D03
    |--R. nano-fasciculatum D03
    |--R. tamarix D03
    `--R. toxarion D03
  Mittenothamnium reptans J87
  Chrysohypnum diminutivum J87
  Herzogiella J87
    |--H. cylindricarpa J87
    `--H. seligeri M08
  Pylaisia (nom. cons.) D24, C03 [=Pylaisiella C03]
    `--P. polyantha [=Leskea polyantha, Stereodon polyanthos] D24
  Orthothecium D24
    |--O. intricatum [=Leskea intricata; incl. Stereodon subrufus] D24
    |    |--O. i. var. intricatum D24
    |    |--O. i. var. abbreviatum Dixon 1923 D24
    |    `--O. i. var. binervulum D24
    `--O. rufescens [=Hypnum rufescens, Stereodon rufescens] D24
  Camptothecium D24
    |--C. lutescens [=Hypnum lutescens] D24
    |    |--C. l. var. lutescens D24
    |    `--C. l. var. fallax [=Homalothecium fallax] D24
    `--C. nitens [=Hypnum nitens; incl. H. trichoides] D24
  Hyocomium flagellare [=Hypnum flagellare] D24

Nomina nuda: Hyocomium brachythecioides Broth. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Pylaisia pseudohomomalla Jaeger 1879 SK02
             Rigodium carnosulum Dusén 1903 D03
             Rigodium pseudo-thuidium Dusén 1903 D03

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 SK02 [=Acrocladium cuspidatum SK02, Calliergon cuspidatum SK02, Hypnum cuspidatum D24; incl. Hypnum flexile (nom. illeg.) SK02]

Chaetomitrium tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 [incl. C. tahitense var. deplanchei (Besch.) Wijk & Margad. 1959, C. geheebii, C. nematosum] SK02

Ctenidium pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 [incl. Hyocomium pilosum (n. n.), Hypnum pilosum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Echinodium hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 [=Hypnum hispidum, Leskea hispida, Sciaromium hispidum; incl. Echinodium arboreum, S. arboreum] SK02

Forsstroemia producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 [incl. Dusenia subproducta, F. subproducta (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1905, Lasia subproducta (n. n.)] SK02

Forsstroemia trichomitra ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 [=Lasia australis, Dusenia australis, Forsstroemia australis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895; incl. Lasia australis var. stricta, F. australis var. stricta (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895] SK02

Lepyrodon lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [=Leucodon lagurus, Hypnum lagurum Menzies ex Hooker 1819 (nom. inv.), Neckera lagura, Stereodon lagurus] SK02

Oedicladium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 [=Myurium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleischer 1908] SK02

Orthorrhynchium elegans ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 [=Acroceratium cymbifolioides (n. n.), Phyllogonium cymbifolioides; incl. Orthorrhynchium thorpeanum (n. n.)] SK02

Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 SK02 [=Hypnum uncinatum SK02, Amblystegium uncinatum SK02, Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. 1903 SK02; incl. A. aduncum D24, Hypnum contiguum Hooker & Wilson 1959 (preoc.) SK02, H. pseudouncinatum SK02]

Stereophyllum radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [incl. Euglossophyllum daemeli Müll.Hal. 1922 (n. n.), S. daemeli Fleischer 1922 (n. n.)] SK02

Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 [=Isopterygium taxirameum; incl. I. robustum, Taxiphyllum robustum, I. teysmannii] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[C03] Compère, P. 2003. Report of the Committee for Algae: 7. Taxon 52: 339–340.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 155–164.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229–236.

Last updated: 9 January 2018.

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