Buxbaumia aphylla, photographed by Michael Lüth.

Belongs within: Embryophyta.
Contains: Sphagnales, Andreaeopsida, Polytrichaceae, Bryidae, Funariidae, Grimmiales, Archidium, Seligeriaceae, Dicranaceae, Fissidentaceae, Leucobryum, Pottiaceae, Ditrichaceae, Erpodiaceae, Calymperaceae, Ephemeraceae.

The Musci are the mosses, the largest living group of non-vascular land plants. Mosses are distinguished by the presence of distinct leaves and multicellular rhizoids on the gametophyte (which is the dominant part of the life-cycle, supporting the dependent sporophytes), and of a columnella (a cylinder of sterile cells) within the spore capsule (De Luna et al. 2003). Within the mosses, all authors support a division between the basalmost Sphagnopsida and the remaining mosses, with the Polytrichopsida and Bryopsida together forming a clade distinguished by a spore capsule opening through an operculum rather than dehiscently as in more basal forms. Polytrichopsida and Bryopsida are distinguished by the forms of the teeth around the capsule opening: in Polytrichopsida, they are nematodontous (formed from entire cells) while in Bryopsida they are arthrodontous (formed from fragments of cell walls). Sphagnopsida are represented in the modern flora by the genera Sphagnum and Ambuchanania; Ambuchanania leucobryoides is a rare species found growing in sandy washes in a small number of localities in Tasmania (Threatened Species Section, Tasmania, 2008).

<==Musci [Bryophytina]
    |--Sphagnopsida SK02
    |    |--Sphagnales C-S98
    |    `--Ambuchanania Seppelt & Crum 1999 [Ambuchananiaceae, Ambuchananiales] SK02
    |         `--A. leucobryoides (Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats.) Seppelt & Crum 1999 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--Bryatae [Acrocarpineae, Buxbaumiales, Buxbaumiidae] C-S98
         |  i. s.: Eustichia [Eustichiaceae] D03b
         |           `--E. longirostris D03b
         |--Andreaeopsida FHH01
         `--+--Polytrichopsida SK02
            |    |--Polytrichaceae FHH01
            |    `--Tetraphidales SK02
            |         |--Tetraphis [Tetraphidaceae, Tetraphididae] FHH01
            |         |    `--T. pellucida FHH01
            |         `--Buxbaumia Hedw. 1801 [Buxbaumiaceae] SK02
            |              |--B. aphylla Hedw. 1801 SK02
            |              |--B. colyerae Burges 1932 SK02
            |              |--B. piperi FHH01
            |              |--B. tasmanica Mitt. 1859 SK02
            |              `--B. thorsborneae Stone 1983 SK02
            `--Bryopsida SK02
                 |--Bryidae BC98
                 |--Funariidae SK02
                 |--Diphyscium Mohr 1803 [Diphysciaceae, Diphysciales, Diphysciidae] SK02
                 |    |--D. foliosum FHH01
                 |    `--D. mucronifolium Mitt. 1855 SK02
                 `--Dicranidae SK02
                      |--Grimmiales SK02
                      |--Archidium SK02
                      |--Seligeriaceae SK02
                      |--Dicranales SK02
                      |    |--Dicranaceae SK02
                      |    |--Fissidentaceae SK02
                      |    `--Leucobryum SK02
                      `--Pottiales SK02
                           |--Pottiaceae SK02
                           |--Ditrichaceae SK02
                           |--Erpodiaceae SK02
                           |--Calymperaceae SK02
                           |--Ephemeraceae SK02
                           |--Bryobartramia Sainsbury 1948 [Bryobartramiaceae] SK02
                           |    `--B. novae-valesiae (Broth. ex Roth) Stone & Scott 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                           `--Viridivellus Stone 1976 [Viridivelleraceae] SK02
                                `--V. pulchellum Stone 1976 SK02

Musci incertae sedis:
  Pylaisia (nom. cons.) [=Pylaisiella] C03
  Palamocladium leskeoides PK03
  Sporogonites BC98
  Timmia [Timmiaceae] N02
    `--T. megapolitana N02
  Trachypodaceae N02
    |--Trachypodopsis serrulata N02
    `--Duthiella declinata N02
  Paludella squarrosa KF00
  Catharomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
    `--C. ciliatum (Hedw.) Wilson 1854 [=Hypopterygium ciliatum] SK02
  Cladomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02
    |--C. ericoides (Hooker) Wilson 1854 SK02
    `--C. gracile D03a
  Cyrtopus (Brid.) Hooker 1867 SK02
    `--C. setosus (Hedw.) Hooker 1867 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Exodictyon subscabrum SK02
  Homalia Brid. 1827 SK02
    |--H. auriculata [=Pendulothecium auriculatum] SK02
    |--H. falcifolia Hooker & Wilson 1854 [=Pseudotaxiphyllum falcifolium] SK02
    `--H. punctata (Hooker & Wilson) Wijk & Margad. 1960 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Mniodendron dendroides [=Bryum dendroides, Hypnodendron dendroides; incl. Mniodendron palmaeum] SK02
  Mniomalia Müll.Hal. 1874 SK02
    `--M. semilimbata Müll.Hal. 1874 SK02
  Pseudephemerum (Lindb.) Hagen 1910 SK02
    `--P. nitidum (Hedw.) Reimers 1933 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Streblotrichum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    `--S. bicolor (Bruch & Schimp.) Loeske 1909 [=Barbula bicolor, Gymnostomum bicolor] SK02
  Acanthocladium macgregorii SK02
  Chrysocladium phaeum SK02
  Phyllogonium [Phyllogoniaceae] J87
    `--P. fulgens J87
  Prionodon [Prionodontaceae] J87
    `--P. densus J87
  Pseudodistichium buchanani M49b
  Weisia viridula M49b
  *Bellia nervosa M49a
  Blindiopsis immersa M49a
  Sciadocladus menziesii M49a

Nomina nuda: Cladomnium crenato-obtusum Dusén 1903 D03a
             Homalia baileyana Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1886 SK02
             Pylaisia pseudohomomalla Jaeger 1879 SK02

Ambuchanania leucobryoides (Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats.) Seppelt & Crum 1999 [=Sphagnum leucobryoides Yamaguchi, Seppelt & Iwats. 1990] SK02

Bryobartramia novae-valesiae (Broth. ex Roth) Stone & Scott 1973 [=Trachycarpidium novae-valesiae; incl. B. robbinsii] SK02

Cyrtopus setosus (Hedw.) Hooker 1867 [=Anictangium setosum, Cladomnion setosum, Garovaglia setosa (n. n.)] SK02

Homalia punctata (Hooker & Wilson) Wijk & Margad. 1960 [=Pendulothecium punctatum; incl. H. pulchella (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Pseudephemerum nitidum (Hedw.) Reimers 1933 [incl. Ps. axillare, Phascum tenellum, Pleuridium tenellum, Pseudephemerum tenellum] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BC98] Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kenrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck & W. E. Stein. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263-292.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.

[C03] Compère, P. 2003. Report of the Committee for Algae: 7. Taxon 52: 339-340.

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903a. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KF00] Kristensen, R. M., & P. Funch. 2000. Micrognathozoa: A new class with complicated jaws like those of Rotifera and Gnathostomulida. Journal of Morphology 246: 1-49.

[M49a] Martin, W. 1949a. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257-277.

[M49b] Martin, W. 1949b. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355-360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[PK03] Piippo, S., & T. Koponen. 2003. Review of the bryofloristic connections of New Guinea Island. Telopea 10 (1): 467-476.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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