Giant tun Tonna galea, copyright Stefano Guerrieri.

Belongs within: Tonnoidea.

The Tonnidae, tun shells, are a group of generally large sand-dwelling gastropods most commonly found in deeper water. The live animal has a very large body when fully extended with a wide, rather flat foot (Wilson & Gillett 1971). They are predators on sea cucumbers, swallowing them whole with their proboscis.

Charactgers (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell generally large, rather thin and inflated; strong spiral ribs present, axial sculpture and varices absent; periostracum thin, smooth, greenish. Anterior canal a U-shaped notch. Umbilicus deep or absent; columellar callus often present, may be reflected over umbilicus and parietal wall to form shield.

<==Tonnidae [Doliaria, Doliidae, Tonninae]
    |--Macgillivrayia Forbes 1852 [Macgillivrayiidae] BR05
    |    `--*M. pelagica Forbes 1852 BR17
    |--Galeodolium Sacco 1891 [Galeodoliidae] BR05
    |    `--*G. muticum (Michelotti 1861) [=Cassidaria mutica] BR17
    |--Eudolium MG-H11
    |    |--E. marylandicum Petuch 1988 P12
    |    `--E. pyriforme (Sowerby 1914) MG-H11
    |--Malea Valenciennes 1832 P89
    |    |--M. camura Guppy 1866 P89
    |    |--M. densecostata (Rutsch 1934) P89
    |    |--M. goliath Pilsbry & Johnson 1917 P89
    |    |--M. mareana Weisbord 1962 P89
    |    |--M. petiti Petuch 1989 P89
    |    |--M. pomum (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |    |--M. ringens [=Cassis ringens] C64
    |    `--M. springi Petuch 1989 P89
    `--Tonna Brünnich 1772 [=Dolium Lamarck 1801] BR05
         |--*T. galea (Linnaeus 1758) P61, S11 [=Buccinum galea P61, *Dolium galea BR17]
         |--T. allium Dillwyn 1817 [incl. T. costata Menke 1828] WG71
         |--T. ampullacea Philippi 1845 WG71
         |--T. canaliculata Linnaeus 1758 WG71
         |--T. cepa (Röding 1798) BW09
         |--T. cerevisina Hedley 1919 WG71
         |    |--T. c. cerevisina P27
         |    `--T. c. haurakiensis Hedley 1919 P27, P61
         |--T. chinensis (Dillwyn 1817) WG71 [=Buccinum chinense H09]
         |--T. cumingii (Reeve 1849) [=Dolium cumingii] H09
         |--T. dolium (Linnaeus 1758) P61 [=Buccinum dolium G20]
         |--‘Dolium’ fasciatum F66
         |--T. maculosa (Dillwyn 1817) S11
         |--T. maoria Powell 1938 P61
         |--T. melanostoma (Jay 1839) [=Dolium melanostomum] BC01
         |--T. olearium ZLK11
         |--‘Dolium’ pennatum G79
         |--T. perdix (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Buccinum perdix H09]
         |--‘Dolium’ petrosum C64
         |--T. pomum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Buccinum pomum] H09
         |--‘Dolium’ ringens [incl. D. dentatum Barnes 1824] C64
         |--T. tessellata Lamarck 1816 WG71
         |--T. tetracotula Hedley 1919 P27
         `--T. variegata (Lamarck 1822) MG-H11 [=Dolium variegatum H09]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P89] Petuch, E. J. 1989. New species of Malea (Gastropoda: Tonnidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Florida. Nautilus 103 (3): 92–95.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P27] Powell, A. W. B. 1927. On a large Tonna and two other gasteropods of Australian origin. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 559–562.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 3 October 2021.

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