Electric blue hermit Calcinus elegans, copyright Fafner.

Belongs within: Anomala.

The Coenobitoidea are a group of crab-like decapods that mostly live as hermit crabs, though the large coconut crab Birgus latro abandons the use of a protective shell as it grows to maturity.

Characters (from McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001): Mandible with incisor process calcareous, lacking acute teeth; third maxillipeds generally approximate basally; chelipeds equal, subequal or unequal, left frequently largest; fourth pereopods not developed as walking legs; sternite XI fused to sternite XII.

    |--Pylochelidae [Pomatochelidae] ML01
    |    |--Pylocheles mortensenii Boas 1926 MG-H11
    |    |--Parapylocheles Alcock 1901 ML01
    |    |--Cancellocheles Forest 1987 ML01
    |    `--Mixtopagurus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
    |         `--M. paradoxus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
    |--Coenobitidae TSH09
    |    |--Birgus latro (Linnaeus 1758) H86
    |    `--Coenobita Latreille 1829 B55
    |         |--C. brevimanus Dana 1852 DAS03
    |         |--C. clypeatus (Fabricius 1787) ML01
    |         |--C. diogenes (Fabricius 1775) [=Pagurus diogenes, Cenobita (l. c.) diogenes] B55
    |         |--C. perlatus Milne Edwards 1837 TSH09
    |         |--C. rugosus Milne-Edwards 1837 TSH09 [incl. C. compressa Milne-Edwards 1837 B55, C. compressus B55]
    |         `--C. spinosa [incl. C. spinosa var. olivieri] H09
    `--Diogenidae [Diogeninae] ML01
         |--Diogenes pugilator (Roux 1829) KK03
         |--Bathynarius L95
         |--Cancellus parfaiti L95
         |--Aniculus ursus (Olivier 1811) TSH09
         |--Strigopagurus elongatus Forest 1995 MG-H11
         |--Ciliopagurus MG-H11
         |    |--C. shebae (Lewinsohn 1969) MG-H11
         |    `--C. strigatus (Herbst 1804) TSH09
         |--Petrochirus Stimpson 1858 L95, B55
         |    |--P. diogenes L95
         |    `--P. granulatus B55
         |         |--P. g. granulatus B55
         |         `--P. g. californiensis Bouvier 1895 B55
         |--Clibanarius TSH09
         |    |--C. corallinus (Milne Edwards 1848) TSH09
         |    |--C. englaucus W01
         |    |--C. erythropus (Latreille 1818) KK03
         |    |--C. eurysternus (Hilgendorf 1878) TSH09
         |    |--C. padavensis H09
         |    |--C. panamensis Stimpson 1859 B55
         |    |--C. striolatus Dana 1852 TSH09
         |    |--C. virescens (Krauss 1843) TSH09
         |    `--C. vittatus Bosc 1802 ML01
         |--Dardanus Paulson 1875 MG-H11, H14
         |    |--D. arrosor (Herbst 1796) KK03
         |    |--D. callidus (Risso 1827) KK03
         |    |--D. crassimanus (Milne Edwards 1836) TSH09
         |    |--D. deformis (Milne Edwards 1836) TSH09
         |    |--D. gemmatus (Milne Edwards 1848) TSH09
         |    |--D. guttatus (Olivier 1811) TSH09
         |    |--D. lagopodes (Forskal 1775) TSH09
         |    |--D. megistos (Herbst 1804) TSH09
         |    |--D. pedunculatus (Herbst 1804) TSH09
         |    `--D. scutellatus (Milne Edwards 1848) TSH09
         |--Paguristes MG-H11
         |    |--P. aciculus Grant 1905 MG-H11
         |    |--P. barbatus HS01
         |    |--P. brevirostris Baker 1905 TSH09
         |    |--P. eremita (Linnaeus 1767) KK03
         |    |--P. longisetosus Morgan 1987 MG-H11
         |    |--P. pilosus HS01
         |    |--P. puncticeps L95
         |    |--P. purpureantennatus Morgan 1987 MG-H11
         |    |--P. runyanae W01
         |    `--P. syrtensis De Saint Laurent 1971 KK03
         `--Calcinus Dana 1851 PB06
              |--C. californiensis Bouvier 1898 PB06
              |--C. chilensis (Milne Edwards 1836) [=Pagurus chilensis] PB06
              |--C. elegans (Milne Edwards 1836) TSH09
              |--C. explorator Boone 1930 PB06
              |--C. gaimardii (Milne Edwards 1848) TSH09
              |--C. gaumensis Wooster 1984 TSH09
              |--C. herbstii De Man 1887 B55
              |--C. laevimanus (Randall 1840) PB06
              |--C. latens (Randall 1840) TSH09
              |--C. lineapropodus Morgan & Forest 1991 TSH09
              |--C. mclaughlinae Poupin & Bouchard 2006 PB06
              |--C. minutus Buitendijk 1937 TSH09
              |--C. obscurus Stimpson 1859 PB06
              |--C. pulcher Forest 1958 TSH09
              |--C. seurati Forest 1951 PB06
              |--C. talismani Milne-Edwards & Bouvier 1892 PB06
              |--C. tibicen (Herbst 1791) PB06
              |--C. tubularis (Linnaeus 1767) KK03
              `--C. vachoni Forest 1958 TSH09

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B55] Bott, R. 1955. Dekapoden (Crustacea) aus El Salvador. 2. Litorale Dekapoden, außer Uca. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 45–70.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Holthuis, L. B. 1986. Decapoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 589–615. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H14] Hosie, A. M. 2014. Review of the stalked barnacle genus Koleolepas (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Koleolepadidae), with new records from Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 1–9.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[L95] Lemaitre, R. 1995. A review of the hermit crabs of the genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), including descriptions of two new species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 570: 1–27.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[PB06] Poupin, J., & J. M. Bouchard. 2006. The eastern Pacific species of the genus Calcinus Dana, 1851, with description of a new species from Clipperton Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Zoosystema 28 (2): 465–486.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[W01] Williams, J. D. 2001. Polydora and related genera associated with hermit crabs from the Indo-West Pacific (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with descriptions of two new species and a second polydorid egg predator of hermit crabs. Pacific Science 55 (4): 429–465.

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