Hipponix leptus, copyright Conquiliologistas do Brasil.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.

The Hipponicidae, hoof shells or horse-hoof limpets, are a group of limpet-like gastropods that are sedentary as adults, either on rocks or the shells of other animals. In some species, a calcareous basal plate may be secreted under the animal. The shell of Cheilea bears an internal projection forming an incomplete cone.

Synapomorphies (from Simone 2011): Shell with suture absent; umbilicus absent. Neck lacking lateral flattened lappets. Haemocoel with distinct head muscle. Pallial cavity less than one-quarter of animal length; osphradium ridge-like and smooth; osphradium leaflets absent. Visceral mass sac-like. Odontophore muscle pair 10 small; stomach with single duct to digestive gland. Exophallic penis present ventral to right tentacle; female gonad somewhat in centre of ventral region.

<==Hipponicidae [Hipponicacea, Hipponicoidea, Hipponycinae]
    |  i. s.: Antisabia MG-H11
    |           |--A. barbatus M54
    |           `--A. foliacea (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) MG-H11
    |--Cheilea Modeer 1793 S11, BR05 [Cheileacea, Cheileidae]
    |    `--*C. equestris (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Patella equestris H09; incl. C. equestris striata Usticke 1959 BC01]
    `--+--Sabia Gray 1841 S11, P61 [=Amalthea Schumacher 1817 non Rafinesque 1815 BR17; Amaltheacea]
       |    |--*S. conica (Schumacher 1817) P61, S11 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--S. wyattae Powell 1958 P61
       `--+--Malluvium S11
          |    |--M. calcareum PG98
          |    `--M. devotus (Hedley 1904) S11
          `--Hipponix Defrance 1819 S11, BR05
               |  i. s.: *H. cornucopiae (Röding 1798) [=Patella cornucopiae] BR17
               |         H. antiquatus Linnaeus 1767 O27
               |           |--H. a. antiquatus O27
               |           `--H. a. cranioides Carpenter 1864 O27
               |         H. barbata Sowerby 1835 O27 [=Hipponyx barbata H09]
               |         H. benthophilus (Dall 1889) B00
               |         H. cranioides Carpenter 1864 C64
               |         H. dixoni TTE93
               |         H. pilosus EO64
               |         H. planatus C64
               |         H. radiatus [=Pileopsis radiata] H86
               |         H. serratus Carpenter 1857 O27
               |         H. tumens Carpenter 1865 O27
               |--+--H. grayanus Menke 1853 S11
               |  `--H. leptus Simone 2002 S11
               `--+--H. incurvus (Gmelin 1791) S11
                  `--+--H. costellatus Carpenter 1856 S11
                     `--H. subrufus (Lamarck 1819) S11

*Sabia conica (Schumacher 1817) P61, S11 [=*Amalthea conica BR17, P61, Hipponix conicus BD86; incl. H. australis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) BD86]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Bandel, K. 2000. The new family Cortinellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) connected to a review of the evolutionary history of the subclass Neritimorpha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 217 (1): 111–129.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 16 September 2021.

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