Hipponix leptus, copyright Conquiliologistas do Brasil.

Belongs within: Latrogastropoda.

The Hipponicidae, hoof shells or horse-hoof limpets, are a group of limpet-like gastropods that are sedentary as adults, either on rocks or the shells of other animals.

Synapomorphies (from Simone 2011): Shell with suture absent; umbilicus absent. Neck lacking lateral flattened lappets. Haemocoel with distinct head muscle. Pallial cavity less than one-quarter of animal length; osphradium ridge-like and smooth; osphradium leaflets absent. Visceral mass sac-like. Odontophore muscle pair 10 small; stomach with single duct to digestive gland. Exophallic penis present ventral to right tentacle; female gonad somewhat in centre of ventral region.

Hipponicidae [Hipponicacea, Hipponycinae, Lippistidae]
    |  i. s.: ‘Amalthea’ Schumacher 1817 non Rafinesque 1815 [Amaltheacea] BR05
    |         Antisabia MG-H11
    |           |--A. barbatus M54
    |           `--A. foliacea (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) MG-H11
    |         Lippistes Montfort 1810 BR05
    |           |--L. blainvilleanus (Petit 1851) [=Trichotropis blainvilleana] H09
    |           |--L. gracilentus (Brazier 1877) [=Trichotropis gracilenta] H09
    |           `--L. zodiacus Hedley 1907 H09
    |--Cheilea Modeer 1793 S11, BR05 [Cheileacea, Cheileidae]
    |    `--C. equestris (Linnaeus 1758) BC01 [=Patella equestris H09; incl. C. equestris striata Usticke 1959 BC01]
    `--+--Sabia Gray 1841 S11, P61
       |    |--*S. conica (Schumacher 1817) P61, S11 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--S. wyattae Powell 1958 P61
       `--+--Malluvium devotus (Hedley 1904) S11
          `--Hipponix Defrance 1819 S11, BR05
               |  i. s.: *H. cornucopia O27
               |         H. antiquatus Linnaeus 1767 O27
               |           |--H. a. antiquatus O27
               |           `--H. a. cranioides Carpenter 1864 O27
               |         H. barbata Sowerby 1835 O27 [=Hipponyx barbata H09]
               |         H. serratus Carpenter 1857 O27
               |         H. tumens Carpenter 1865 O27
               |--+--H. grayanus Menke 1853 S11
               |  `--H. leptus Simone 2002 S11
               `--+--H. incurvus (Gmelin 1791) S11
                  `--+--H. costellatus Carpenter 1856 S11
                     `--H. subrufus (Lamarck 1819) S11

*Sabia conica (Schumacher 1817) P61, S11 [=Amalthea conica BD86, Hipponix conicus BD86; incl. H. australis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) BD86]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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