Common egg cowrie Ovula ovum feeding on Sarcophyton, copyright In-Depth Images Kwajalein.

Belongs within: Cypraeoidea.

The Ovulidae, egg and spindle cowries, are a group of marine gastropods with usually brightly coloured and patterned mantles that live and feed on the polyps of cnidarians (Wilson & Gillett 1971). Ovulids generally differ from the true cowries of the Cypraeidae in lacking regular teeth on the inner lip.

<==Ovulidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Aclyvolva Cate 1973 [Aclyvolvinae] BR17
    |    `--*A. lanceolata (Sowerby 1849) [=Ovulum lanceolatum] BR17
    |--Sulcocypraea Conrad 1865 BR05 [Sulcocypraeinae BR17, Sulcocypraeini]
    |    `--*S. lintea (Conrad 1848) [=Cypraea lintea] BR17
    |--Eocypraeinae BR17
    |    |--Eocypraea Cossmann 1903 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*E. inflata (Lamarck 1802) [=Cypraea inflata, *Cypraeacites inflatus] BR17
    |    |    `--E. pilulosa (Stoliczka 1867) TTE93
    |    `--Prionovolva Iredale 1930 BR17, WG71 [Prionovolvinae]
    |         |--*P. brevis (Sowerby 1828) [=Ovulum breve] BR17
    |         `--P. cavanaghi Iredale 1931 WG71
    |--Simnia Risso 1826 BR05 [Simniinae BR17, Simniini]
    |    |--*S. nicaeensis Risso 1826 BR17
    |    |--S. acicularis Lamarck 1811 O27
    |    |--S. aequalis Sowerby 1832 M03
    |    |--S. deflexa [=Ovula (Simnia) deflexa] O27
    |    |--S. patula WG71
    |    |--S. variabilis Adams 1850 O27
    |    `--S. vidleri Sowerby 1881 [=Ovulum vidleri] O27
    |--Ovulinae [Ovulini] M03
    |    |--Volva Röding 1798 non Adans. 1763 (ICBN) [Volvinae, Volvini] BR05
    |    |    |--*V. volva (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--V. kilburni Cate 1975 BC01
    |    |    |--V. nectarea Iredale 1930 WG71
    |    |    `--V. philippinarum Sowerby 1848 WG71
    |    `--Ovula Bruguière 1789 BR05 [=Amphiperas Gray 1847 BR17]
    |         |--*O. ovum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Bulla ovum, *Amphiperas ovum] BR17
    |         |--O. adriatica PP64
    |         |--O. avena [incl. O. neglecta] C64
    |         |--O. costellata Lamarck 1810 WG71
    |         |--O. margarita Sowerby 1849 H09
    |         |--O. oviformis G20
    |         |--O. patula M01
    |         |--O. punctata Duclos 1830 H09
    |         `--O. tortilis (Martyn 1784) [=Cypraea tortilis] H09
    `--Pediculariinae [Pediculariadae, Pediculariidae, Pediculariinae] BR17
         |--Pedicularia Swainson 1840 [Pediculariini] BR05
         |    |  i. s.: P. californica Newcomb 1864 O27
         |    |         P. decussata (Gould 1855) S11
         |    |         P. pacifica Pease 1865 M03
         |    |--*P. (Pedicularia) sicula Swainson 1840 BR17
         |    `--P. (Pediculariona Iredale 1935) P61
         |         |--P. (*P.) stylasteris P61
         |         `--P. (P.) maoria Powell 1937 P61
         `--Cypraediini [Cypraediinae, Jenneriinae] BR17
              |--Cypraedia Swainson 1840 BR05
              |    `--*C. cancellata Swainson 1840 BR17
              |--Cyproglobina de Gregorio 1880 [Cyproglobinini] BR05
              |    `--*C. corbuloides (Bellardi 1852) [=Cypraea corbuloides] BR17
              |--Jenneria Jousseaume 1884 M03, BR05
              |    `--*J. pustulata (Lightfoot 1786) [=Cypraea pustulata] BR17
              `--Pseudocypraea Schilder 1927 BR17, BR05 [Pseudocypraeinae, Pseudocypraeini]
                   `--*P. adamsonii (Gray in Sowerby 1832) [=Cypraea adamsonii] BR17

Ovulidae incertae sedis:
  Neosimnia Fischer 1884 WG71
    |--N. barbarensis (Dall 1892) [=Ovula (Simnia) deflexa barbarense, Simnia (Neosimnia) barbarensis] O27
    |--N. catalinensis (Berry 1816) [=Simnia (Neosimnia) catalinensis] O27
    |--N. depressa Sowerby 1875 WG71
    |--N. quaylei S59
    `--N. uniplicata (Sowerby 1848) [=Simnia (Neosimnia) uniplicata] O27
  Primovula Thiele 1925 WG71
    `--P. (Primovula) howlandae Cate 1974 BC01
  Diminovula Iredale 1930 BC01
    |--D. nielseni (Cate 1976) [=Pseudosimnia (Diminovula) nielseni] BC01
    `--D. punctata (Duclos 1831) [=Primovula (Diminovula) punctata] WG71
  Calpurnus Montfort 1810 WG71
    |--C. lacteus Lamarck 1810 BW09
    `--C. verrucosus (Linné 1758) S11
  Phenacovolva BC01
    |--P. (Turbovula) greenbergae Cate 1974 BC01
    |--P. haynesi (Sowerby 1889) MG-H11
    |--P. (Turbovolva) kashiwajimensis Cate & Azuma in Cate 1973 BC01
    |--P. tokioi Cate 1973 M03
    |--P. (Calcaria) wakayamaensis Cate & Azuma in Cate 1973 BC01
    `--P. (Pellasimnia) weaveri Cate 1973 BC01, M03
         |--P. w. weaveri BC01
         `--P. w. pseudogracilis Cate & Azuma in Cate 1973 BC01
  Prosimnia semperi (Weinkauff 1881) BW09
  Xandraovula pagoda Cate 1973 MG-H11
  Adamantia BC01
    |--A. florida Kuroda 1958 M03
    `--A. horai (Cardin 1994) [=Primovula (Adamantia) horai] BC01
  Crenavolva BC01
    |--C. (Cuspivolva) baltea Cate 1973 BC01
    |--C. rosewateri Cate 1973 M03
    `--C. tokuoi Azuma 1989 M03
  Cymbovula queenslandica Cate 1974 BC01
  Cyphoma S11
    |--C. gibbosum (Linné 1758) S11
    |--C. rhomba Cate 1978 BC01
    `--C. signatum Pilsbry & McGinty 1939 S11
  Dentiovula spectabilis Cate 1975 BC01
  Kuroshiovolva Azuma & Cate 1971 BC01
    `--*K. shingoi Azuma & Cate 1971 BC01
  Pseudosimnia wieseorum Lorenz 1987 BC01, ES88
  Pseudocyphoma intermedium (Sowerby 1828) S11
  Simnialena uniplicata (Sowerby 1848) S11
  Cymbula acicularis (Lamarck 1810) S11
  Radius C64
    |--R. angasi (Reeve 1865) [=Ovulum angasi] H09
    |--R. avena C64
    |--R. similis C64
    `--R. variabilis C64

Eocypraea Cossmann 1903 BR05 [incl. Cypraeacites Schlotheim 1820 (nom. inv.) BR17; Cypraeacitinae, Cypraeacitini, Eocypraeini]

Ovulidae [Amphiperasidae, Amphiperatidae, Amphiperatinae, Amphiperatini, Dactyloglossa, Digitiglossa, Eocypraeidae, Eocypraeinae, Ovuladae, Ovuloidea, Ovuloidei]

*Volva volva (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Bulla volva BR17, Ovula volva H09; incl. Volva textoria Röding 1798 BR17]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[M01] M'Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S59] Stohler, R. 1959. Range extensions of some west N. A. marines. Nautilus 72 (4): 127–130.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 8 June 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS