Bursa cubaniana, copyright Jacksonville Shell Club.

Belongs within: Cassoidea.

The Bursidae, frog shells, are a group of marine gastropods with usually heavy, strongly ornamented shells that are most commonly found in shallow water among coral or rocks (Wilson & Gillett 1971). They receive their vernacular name from their commonly warty appearance.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usuall heavy, strongly nodulose or spiny, covered with calcareous growths; varices strong; anterior canal short; posterior canal represented by deep notch at posterior end of aperture; operculum horny.

    |--Tutufa Jousseaume 1881 [Tutufinae] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: T. bubo (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         T. bufo Röding 1798 MG-H11
    |    |         T. rubeta (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Bursa rubeta WG71]
    |    `--T. (Tutufella Beu 1981) BC01
    |         `--T. (T.) nigrita Mühlhäusser & Blöcher 1979 BC01
    |--Bufonaria Schumacher 1817 O27
    |    |--B. bufo (Bruguière 1792) H14
    |    |--B. californica (Hinds 1843) [=Bursa (Bufonaria) californica] O27
    |    |--B. (Bufonaria) cristinae Parth 1989 BC01
    |    |--B. crumena (Lamarck 1816) MG-H11
    |    |--B. fernandesi Beu 1977 ES88
    |    `--B. rana (Linnaeus 1758) MG-H11
    `--Bursa Röding 1798 [Bursinae] BR05
         |  i. s.: B. bitubercularis (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella bitubercularis] H09
         |         B. bufonia Gmelin 1791 BW09
         |         B. corrugata (Reeve 1844) S11
         |         B. cruentata (Sowerby 1841) BW09
         |         B. gyrina (Linnaeus 1758) H09 [=Murex gyrinus H09, Ranella gyrina BR05]
         |         B. humilis Beu 1981 MG-H11
         |         B. lamarckii (Deshayes 1853) BW09
         |         B. lampas (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex lampas] H09
         |         B. latitudo Garrard 1961 WG71
         |         B. pusilla (Broderip 1833) [=Ranella pusilla, Gyrineum pusillum] H09
         |         B. rana (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Murex rana H09; incl. B. cavitensis Reeve 1843 WG71]
         |         B. rhodostoma (Beck in Sowerby 1835) BW09
         |         B. rosa Perry 1811 [incl. B. siphonata Reeve 1844] WG71
         |         B. tenuisculpta (Dautzenberg & Fisher 1906) S11
         |         B. thomae (Orbigny 1842) S11
         |         B. venustula (Reeve 1844) [=Ranella venustula] H09
         |--B. (Bursa) BC01
         |    |--*B. (B.) granifera [=Ranella granifera] O27
         |    |--B. (B.) davidboschi Beu 1986 BC01
         |    |--B. (B.) lucaensis Parth 1991 BC01
         |    `--B. (B.) grayana (Dunker 1868) [incl. B. pacamoni Matthews & Coelho 1971] BC01
         |--B. (Colubrellina Fischer 1884) BC01, WG71
         |    `--B. (C.) quirihorai Beu 1986 BC01
         `--B. (Dulcerana Iredale 1931) WG71
              |--B. (D.) cubaniana (Orbigny 1842) BC01, S11 (see below for synonymy)
              `--B. (D.) granularis (Röding 1798) BW09, WG71 (see below for synonymy)

Bursa (Dulcerana) cubaniana (d’Orbigny 1842) BC01, S11 [=B. granularis cubaniana BC01; incl. B. cubaniana var. intermedia Usticke 1959 BC01, B. corrugata var. lineata Usticke 1959 BC01]

Bursa (Dulcerana) granularis (Röding 1798) BW09, WG71 [=Colubrellina (D.) granularis WG71; incl. C. affinis Broderip 1832 WG71, C. semigranosa Lamarck 1822 WG71]

Tutufa bubo (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Bursa bubo WG71; incl. B. rubeta gigantea Smith 1914 WG71, T. lampas Linnaeus 1758 WG71]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H14] Hosie, A. M. 2014. Review of the stalked barnacle genus Koleolepas (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Koleolepadidae), with new records from Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 1–9.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt. II. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 1 May 2017.

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