Bursa cubaniana, copyright Jacksonville Shell Club.

Belongs within: Tonnoidea.

The Bursidae, frog shells, are a group of marine gastropods that are most commonly found in shallow water among coral or rocks. The shell is usually heavy and strongly ornamented, commonly with a warty appearance that gives rise to the vernacular name. They may be distinguished from related, similar shells among the tritons and trumpets by the presence of a strong notch at the posterior end of the aperture (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usuall heavy, strongly nodulose or spiny, covered with calcareous growths; varices strong; anterior canal short; posterior canal represented by deep notch at posterior end of aperture; operculum horny.

    |--Hanaibursa aequilana (Parona 1909) TTE93
    |--Tutufa Jousseaume 1881 [Tutufinae] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: T. bufo Röding 1798 MG-H11
    |    |         T. rubeta (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Bursa rubeta WG71]
    |    |--*T. (Tutufa) bubo (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--T. (Tutufella Beu 1981) BC01
    |         `--T. (T.) nigrita Mühlhäusser & Blöcher 1979 BC01
    |--Bufonaria Schumacher 1817 O27
    |    |--B. bufo (Bruguière 1792) H14
    |    |--B. californica (Hinds 1843) [=Bursa (Bufonaria) californica] O27
    |    |--B. (Bufonaria) cristinae Parth 1989 BC01
    |    |--B. crumena (Lamarck 1816) MG-H11
    |    |--B. fernandesi Beu 1977 ES88
    |    `--B. rana (Linnaeus 1758) MG-H11
    `--Bursa Röding 1798 [Bursinae] BR05
         |  i. s.: B. bitubercularis (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella bitubercularis] H09
         |         B. corrugata (Reeve 1844) S11
         |         B. cruentata (Sowerby 1841) BW09
         |         B. fuscocostata Dkr. 1862 C64
         |         B. humilis Beu 1981 MG-H11
         |         B. lamarckii (Deshayes 1853) BW09
         |         B. lampas (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex lampas] H09
         |         B. latitudo Garrard 1961 WG71
         |         B. mammata H15
         |         B. pusilla (Broderip 1833) [=Ranella pusilla, Gyrineum pusillum] H09
         |         B. rana (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Murex rana H09; incl. B. cavitensis Reeve 1843 WG71]
         |         B. rhodostoma (Beck in Sowerby 1835) BW09
         |         B. rosa Perry 1811 [incl. B. siphonata Reeve 1844] WG71
         |         B. saundersi Adegoke 1977 TTE93
         |         B. tenuisculpta (Dautzenberg & Fisher 1906) S11
         |         B. thomae (Orbigny 1842) S11
         |         B. venustula (Reeve 1844) [=Ranella venustula] H09
         |--B. (Bursa) BC01
         |    |--*B. (B.) bufonia (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex bufonius; incl. B. monitata Röding 1798] BR17
         |    |--B. (B.) davidboschi Beu 1986 BC01
         |    |--B. (B.) granifera [=Ranella granifera] O27
         |    |--B. (B.) lucaensis Parth 1991 BC01
         |    `--B. (B.) grayana (Dunker 1868) [incl. B. pacamoni Matthews & Coelho 1971] BC01
         |--B. (Colubrellina Fischer 1884) BC01, WG71
         |    `--B. (C.) quirihorai Beu 1986 BC01
         `--B. (Dulcerana Iredale 1931) WG71
              |--B. (D.) cubaniana (Orbigny 1842) BC01, S11 (see below for synonymy)
              `--B. (D.) granularis (Röding 1798) BW09, WG71 (see below for synonymy)

Bursa (Dulcerana) cubaniana (Orbigny 1842) BC01, S11 [=B. granularis cubaniana BC01; incl. B. cubaniana var. intermedia Usticke 1959 BC01, B. corrugata var. lineata Usticke 1959 BC01]

Bursa (Dulcerana) granularis (Röding 1798) BW09, WG71 [=Colubrellina (D.) granularis WG71; incl. C. affinis Broderip 1832 WG71, C. semigranosa Lamarck 1822 WG71]

*Tutufa (Tutufa) bubo (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Murex bubo BR17, Bursa bubo WG71; incl. B. rubeta gigantea Smith 1914 WG71, T. lampas Linnaeus 1758 WG71]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[H14] Hosie, A. M. 2014. Review of the stalked barnacle genus Koleolepas (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Koleolepadidae), with new records from Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 1–9.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 6 June 2021.

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