Spirobolus sp., from here.

Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Rhinocricidae, Dinematocricus.

The Spirobolida are a group of cylindrical millipedes with distinct pleural sclerites.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body of adults with more than twenty segments; ocellaria basically rounded to round-oval, no transverse suture evident between them; gnathochilarium rectangular with triangular mentum and small distal lingual lamellae; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, but remain distinguished by presence of articular sutures; pair of legs present on segment 3; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Spirobolida [Anocheta, Spirobolidea]
    |--Pachybolidae H02
    |--Rhinocricidae B13
    |--Floridobolus [Floridobolidae] H90
    |    `--F. penneri H90
    |--Xyloiulidae WA04
    |    |--Plagioscetus lateralis WA04
    |    `--Xyloiulus [incl. Xylobius] WA04
    |         `--X. moniliformis (Woodward 1905) H00
    |--Trigoniulidae K54
    |    |--Trigoniulus B13
    |    |    |--T. burnetticus Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    |--T. comma Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    `--T. targionii Silvestri 1897 B13
    |    `--Allopocockia Brölemann 1914 [incl. Arolus Chamberlin 1922] K54
    |         |--*A. tylopus (Pocock 1908) K54
    |         |--A. atricula K54
    |         |--A. purulana K54
    |         `--A. rotunda Kraus 1954 K54
    |--Atopetholidae H90
    |    |--Eurelus soleatus H90
    |    |--Atopetholus californicus H90
    |    |--Watichelus H90
    |    |--Arinolus H90
    |    |    |--A. citrinus C62
    |    |    |--A. michelbacheri C62
    |    |    |--A. nevadae Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |    `--A. sequens Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |--Piedolus H90
    |    |--Anelus H90
    |    |--Centrelus H90
    |    |--Comanchelus H90
    |    |--Toltecolus H90
    |    |--Uvaldia H90
    |    `--Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) (see below for synonymy) C62
    `--Spirobolidae K54
         |--*Epitrigoniulus cruentatus (Brölemann 1902) [=Spirobolellus cruentatus] B13
         |--Paraspirobolus Brölemann 1901 B13
         |--Dinematocricus B13
         |--Chicobolus H90
         |--Hiltonius H90
         |--Tylobolus H90
         |--Eucentrolobus Pocock 1903 B13
         |    |--*E. tumulus B13
         |    `--E. maindroni [=Acanthiulus maindroni] B13
         |--Pseudospirobolellus Carl 1912 B13
         |    `--*P. bulbiferus (Attems 1907) [=Spirobolellus bulbiferus] B13
         |--Acanthiulus Gervais 1844 [incl. Polybunolobus Pocock 1893] B13
         |    |--*A. blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) (see below for synonymy) B13
         |    `--A. murrayi Pocock 1893 [=*Polybunolobus murrayi] B13
         |--Spirobolellus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    |--*S. chrysodirus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    `--S. rainbowi Brölemann 1913 B13
         |--Narceus H90
         |    |--N. americanus RS10
         |    `--N. annularus NS03
         |--Oxobolus Chamberlin 1922 K54
         |    |--O. distinctus Kraus 1954 K54
         |    |--O. mundus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |    `--O. santanus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |--Spirostrophus Saussure & Zehntner 1902 B13
         |    |--*S. naresi B13
         |    |--S. digitulus Brölemann 1913 B13
         |    `--S. rubripes B13
         `--Spirobolus B13
              |--S. adipatus B13
              |--S. caelatus B13
              |--S. coeruleolimbatus B13
              |--S. colubrinus B13
              |--S. costatus B13
              |--S. decoratus B13
              |--S. detornatus B13
              |--S. fenicheli Daday 1893 B13
              |--S. lugubris B13
              |--S. pictus B13
              |--S. signifer B13
              `--S. vogesi B13

*Acanthiulus blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) [=Julus blainvillei, Crigoniulus blainvillei; incl. Spirobolus dentatus Daday 1893] B13

Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) [=Onychelus michelbacheri, Atopetholus michelbacheri; incl. On. phanus Chamberlin 1941, Orthichelus phanus] C62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77-158, plates XIV-XVIII.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53-56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19-35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671-686.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293-349.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887-1889.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169-184.

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