Head of Siphonophora barberi, from Chamberlin (1922).

Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.

The Colobognatha are a clade of millipedes characterised by the presence of elongate, sucking mouthparts. They are divided between three orders, among which the Platydesmida have the pleurites fused to the tergites (Sierwald et al. 2003) and a well-defined median longitudinal suture along the metaterga (Hoffman 1990). The Polyzoniida and Siphonophorida can be distinguished by the presence (Polyzoniida) or absence (Siphonophorida) of ocelli.

Synapomorphies (from Sierwald et al. 2003): Mouthparts elongate, with gnathochilarial palps absent; adult males with ninth leg modified into an accessory gonopod, tenth leg into a functional gonopod; adults curl protectively around eggs; first larval instar with four leg pairs.

<==Colobognatha [Typhlogena]
    |--Platydesmida SS03
    |    |--Platydesmus Lucas 1843 [Platydesmidae] K54b
    |    |    |--P. lankesteri Brölemann 1905 K54b
    |    |    `--P. marmoreus Pocock 1903 K54b
    |    `--Andrognathidae H90
    |         |--Andrognathus H90
    |         |--Ischnocybe H90
    |         |--Mitocybe H90
    |         |--Gosodesmus H90
    |         `--Brachycybe lecontii H90
    `--+--Polyzoniida [Ommatophora, Polyzoniidea] SS03
       |    |  i. s.: Petaserpes Cope 1870 W05
       |    |--Siphonotus [Siphonotidae] H90
       |    |    `--S. purpureus [=Rhinotus purpureus] H90
       |    |--Hirudisomatidae H90
       |    |    |--Euzonium H90
       |    |    |--Hypozonium H90
       |    |    `--Octoglena H90
       |    `--Polyzoniidae H90
       |         |--Bdellozonium H90
       |         |--Buzonium H90
       |         |--Calzonium H90
       |         |--Pizonium H90
       |         |--Polyzonium Brandt 1837 W05
       |         |    `--P. germanicum RS10
       |         `--Angarozonium Shelley 1998 MG00
       |              `--A. amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) (see below for synonymy) MG00
       `--Siphonophorida SS03
            |--Siphonorhinidae H90
            |    |--Illacme plenipes H90, GE05
            |    `--Siphonorhinus H90
            `--Siphonophoridae H90
                 |--Siphonacme H90
                 `--Siphonophora Newport 1845 K54a
                      |--S. andecola Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. barberi K54b
                      |--S. gracilicornis K54a
                      |--S. lafloridae Kraus 1955 K55
                      |--S. porcullae Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. progressor K54b
                      |--S. sabachana K54b
                      `--S. trifini Kraus 1954 K54b

Angarozonium amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) [=Platydesmus amurensis, Polyzonium amurense; incl. Po. cyathiferum Mikhaljova 1981] MG00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[MG00] Mikhaljova, E. V., & S. I. Golovatch. 2000. A review of the millipede fauna of Siberia (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 103–118.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

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