Dolichoderinae

Dolly ant Dolichoderus scabridus, copyright Ajay Narendra.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Iridomyrmex, Bothriomyrmex, Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea), Technomyrmex, Tapinoma, Leptomyrmex.

The Dolichoderinae are a group of ants characterised by the presence of a transverse slit at the apex of the abdomen from which chemicals are secreted (Heterick 2009). A number of dolichoderines are notably aggressive, and some such as the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and white-footed ant Technomyrmex albipes are notorious pests. The majority of dolichoderines possess a relatively soft, unornamented cuticle but members of the basal genus Dolichoderus are more strongly sclerotised and often markedly sculpted on the head and mesosoma.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Mandibles triangular with teeth along entire inner margin; abdomen without impression between third and fourth abdominal segments, often soft, flexible and easily collapsed; transverse slit present at junction of hypopygium and pygidium.

<==Dolichoderinae [Anonychomyrmini, Axinidrini, Dolichoderidae, Leptomyrmicini, Liometopini, Pityomyrmecini, Zherichiniini]
    |--Dolichoderus Lunder 1831 BS06, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: *D. attelaboides (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica attelaboides] TB85
    |    |         D. affinis Emery 1889 [incl. D. affinis var. glabripes, D. affinis var. nigricans] B03
    |    |         D. bidens S07
    |    |         D. burmanicus Bingham 1903 B03
    |    |         D. (Karajewella) cuspidatus SM13 [=Hypoclinea cuspidatus GE05]
    |    |         D. erectilobus SM13
    |    |         D. feae Emery 1889 B03
    |    |         D. flatidorsus Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
    |    |         D. fuscus Emery 1889 [=D. feae fuscus] B03
    |    |         D. gibbifer E89b
    |    |         D. moggridgei Forel 1886 B03
    |    |         D. pilosus Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
    |    |         D. quadripunctatus E89a
    |    |         D. rugocapitus Zhou 2001 Z01
    |    |         D. sibiricus Emery 1889 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |    |         D. sulcaticeps (Mayr 1870) [=Hypoclinea sulcaticeps] B03
    |    |         D. taprobanae (Smith 1858) B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. thoracicus (Smith 1860) Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. tuberifer E89b
    |    |--D. (Hypoclinea) SM13
    |    `--+--D. (Acanthoclinea Wheeler 1935) SM13, TB85
    |       |    |--D. (*A.) doriae Emery 1887 TB85
    |       |    |--D. (A.) clarki Wheeler 1935 SM13, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |    |--D. (A.) dentatus Forel 1902 [=D. doriae dentata] SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) etus Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) extensispinus Forel 1915 SM13, TB85 [=D. doriae extensispina TB85]
    |       |    `--D. (A.) gordoni Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |       `--+--Monoceratoclinea Wheeler 1935 SM13, Z01
    |          |--D. indrapurensis SM13
    |          `--D. (Diceratoclinea Wheeler 1935) SM13, TB85
    |               |--D. (*D.) scabridus Roger 1862 TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--D. (D.) angusticornis Clark 1930 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) angusticornis TB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) inferus Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |               |--D. (D.) niger Crawley 1922 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon nigra TB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) rufotibialis Clark 1930 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon rufotibialis TB85]
    |               `--D. (D.) ypsilon Forel 1902 SM13, TB85
    `--+--+--Technomyrmex BS06
       |  `--+--Tapinoma BS06
       |     `--Liometopum Mayr 1861 BS06, B03 [incl. Ctenobethylus Brues 1939 Z01]
       |          |--*L. microcephalum (Panzer 1798) [=Formica microcephala] Z01
       |          |--L. apiculatum BS06
       |          |--L. lindgreeni Forel 1902 B03
       |          |--L. occidentale BS06
       |          |    |--L. o. occidentale BM76
       |          |    `--L. o. luctuosum BM76
       |          `--L. sinense Wheeler 1921 Z01
       `--+--Leptomyrmex BS06
          `--+--+--Forelius pruinosus BS06 [=Iridomyrmex pruinosus WW90]
             |  |    |--F. p. pruinosus BM76
             |  |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ p. analis BM76
             |  `--Dorymyrmex BS06
             |       |--D. bicolor BS06 [=Conomyrma bicolor WW90, D. pyramicus bicolor WW90]
             |       `--D. pyramicus BM76
             `--+--Azteca BS06
                |    |--A. constructor S10
                |    |--A. ovaticeps BS06
                |    |--A. trigona TRZ10
                |    `--A. xanthochroa WI-B09
                `--+--Linepithema humile (Mayr 1868) BS06, W08
                   `--+--Papyrius nitidus BS06
                      `--+--Anonychomyrma BS06
                         |    |--A. gilberti BS06
                         |    |--A. itinerans H09
                         |    |    |--A. i. itinerans H09
                         |    |    `--A. i. perthensis H09
                         |    `--A. nitidiceps H09
                         `--+--Philidris Shattuck 1992 BS06, Z01
                            |    |--*P. cordata (Smith 1859) Z01 [=Formica cordata Z01, Iridomyrmex cordatus TB85]
                            |    |    |--P. c. cordata TB85
                            |    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex cordatus’ stewartii Forel 1893 TB85
                            |    `--P. notiala Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
                            `--Turneria Forel 1895 BS06, TB85
                                 |--*T. bidentata Forel 1895 TB85
                                 |--T. dahlii Z01
                                 |--T. frenchi Forel 1911 TB85
                                 `--T. pacifica Z01

Dolichoderinae incertae sedis:
  Iridomyrmex H09
  Eotapinoma GE05
    |--E. macalpini GE05
    `--E. zherichinius GE05
  Ochetellus Shattuck 1992 FT08
    |--*O. glaber (Mayr 1862) [=Hypoclinea glabra, Iridomyrmex glaber; incl. I. itoi Forel 1900] Z01
    |    |--O. g. glaber TB85
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ g. clarithorax Forel 1902 TB85
    |--O. flavipes H09
    `--O. punctatissimus H09
  Froggattella Forel 1902 TB85
    |--*F. kirbii (Lowne 1865) [=Acantholepis kirbii, Dolichoderus kirbyi Dalla Torre 1893] TB85
    |    |--F. k. kirbii TB85
    |    |--F. k. bispinosa Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--F. k. ianthina Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    |--F. k. laticeps Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    |--F. k. lutescens Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    `--F. k. nigripes Wheeler 1936 TB85
    `--F. latispina Wheeler 1936 TB85
  Arnoldius H09
    |--A. flavus H09
    `--A. scissor H09
  Nebothriomyrmex majeri H09
  Doleromyrma Forel 1907 H09, TB85
    |--*D. darwiniana (Forel 1907) [=Tapinoma (*Doleromyrma) darwinianum, Iridomyrmex darwinianus] TB85
    |    |--D. d. darwiniana H09
    |    |--D. d. fida (Forel 1907) H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex darwinianus’ leae Forel 1913 TB85
    `--D. rottnestensis (Wheeler 1934) H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
  Conomyrma WW90
    |--C. flavopectus [=Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavopectus] WW90
    `--C. insana WW90
  Bothriomyrmex TB85

Doleromyrma darwiniana fida (Forel 1907) H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Doleromyrma) darwinianum fida, Iridomyrmex darwinianus fida TB85]

Doleromyrma rottnestensis (Wheeler 1934) H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Micromyrma) rottnestense TB85, T. minutum rottnestense H09]

Dolichoderus Lund 1831 BS06, Z01 [incl. Diabolus Karavajew 1926 Z01, Irenae Donisthorpe 1938 Z01, Karavajewella Donisthorpe 1944 Z01, Monacis Roger 1862 Z01]

Dolichoderus sibiricus Emery 1889 [=D. quadripunctatus sibiricus; incl. D. (Hypoclinea) abietis Kono & Sugihara 1939, D. (H.) sinensis var. atriceps Wheeler 1928, D. quadripunctatus japonicus Yoshioka 1939, D. (H.) sinensis Wheeler 1921, D. (H.) quadripunctatus yoshiokae Wheeler 1933] Z01

Dolichoderus taprobanae (Smith 1858) B03 [=Formica taprobanae B03; incl. Hypoclinea gracilipes Mayr 1878 B03, Dolichoderus taprobanae var. gracilipes B03, H. gracilis Motschoulsky 1863 Z01, Formica ingruens Walker 1859 Z01, Dolichoderus semirufus André 1887 B03]

Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith 1860) Z01 [=Tapinoma thoracica E89b; incl. Hypoclinea bituberculatus Mayr 1862 Z01, Dolichoderus bituberculatus B03, Tapinoma gibba E89b]

Dolichoderus (Acanthoclinea) clarki Wheeler 1935 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) tristis Clark 1930 non D. (Monacis) tristis Mann 1916 TB85]

Dolichoderus (*Diceratoclinea) scabridus Roger 1862 TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) scabridus TB85; incl. Polyrhachis foveolatus Lowne 1865 TB85, D. (H.) scabridus ruficornis Santschi 1916 SM13, TB85]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89a] Emery, C. 1889a. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 439–443.

[E89b] Emery, C. 1889b. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885-87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[SM13] Shattuck, S. O., & S. Marsden. 2013. Australian species of the ant genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3716 (2): 101–143.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S10] Swann, J. E. 2010. Milichiidae (milichiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1125–1136. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flies or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W08] Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Last updated: 22 June 2018.

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