Dolly ant Dolichoderus scabridus, copyright Ajay Narendra.

Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Iridomyrmex, Bothriomyrmex, Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea), Technomyrmex, Tapinoma, Leptomyrmex.

The Dolichoderinae are a group of ants characterised by the presence of a transverse slit at the apex of the abdomen from which chemicals are secreted (Heterick 2009). A number of dolichoderines are notably aggressive and some such as the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and white-footed ant Technomyrmex albipes are notorious pests. The majority of dolichoderines possess a relatively soft, unornamented cuticle but members of the basal genus Dolichoderus are more strongly sclerotised and often markedly sculpted on the head and mesosoma. Dolichoderus is also characterised by a posteriorly concave propodeum, a feature shared with the smaller and less sclerotised species of the Indp-Australian genus Ochetellus. Other genera include Liometopum, found in drier forests of the Holarctic region where most species form large nests arboreally. The Neotropical genus Azteca is entirely arboreal with species nesting in hollows in wood or constructing carton nests.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Mandibles triangular with teeth along entire inner margin; abdomen without impression between third and fourth abdominal segments, often soft, flexible and easily collapsed; transverse slit present at junction of hypopygium and pygidium.

<==Dolichoderinae [Anonychomyrmini, Axinidrini, Dolichoderidae, Leptomyrmicini, Liometopini, Pityomyrmecini, Zherichiniini]
    |--Dolichoderus Lunder 1831 BS06, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: *D. attelaboides (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica attelaboides] TB85
    |    |         D. affinis Emery 1889 [incl. D. affinis var. glabripes, D. affinis var. nigricans] B03
    |    |         D. bidens S07
    |    |         D. burmanicus Bingham 1903 B03
    |    |         D. (Karajewella) cuspidatus SM13 [=Hypoclinea cuspidatus GE05]
    |    |         D. erectilobus SM13
    |    |         D. feae Emery 1889 B03
    |    |         D. flatidorsus Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
    |    |         D. fuscus Emery 1889 [=D. feae fuscus] B03
    |    |         D. gibbifer E89b
    |    |         D. moggridgei Forel 1886 B03
    |    |         D. pilosus Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
    |    |         D. quadripunctatus E89a
    |    |         D. rugocapitus Zhou 2001 Z01
    |    |         D. sibiricus Emery 1889 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |    |         D. sulcaticeps (Mayr 1870) [=Hypoclinea sulcaticeps] B03
    |    |         D. taprobanae (Smith 1858) B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. thoracicus (Smith 1860) Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. tuberifer E89b
    |    |--D. (Hypoclinea) SM13
    |    `--+--D. (Acanthoclinea Wheeler 1935) SM13, TB85
    |       |    |--D. (*A.) doriae Emery 1887 TB85
    |       |    |--D. (A.) clarki Wheeler 1935 SM13, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |    |--D. (A.) dentatus Forel 1902 [=D. doriae dentata] SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) etus Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) extensispinus Forel 1915 SM13, TB85 [=D. doriae extensispina TB85]
    |       |    `--D. (A.) gordoni Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |       `--+--Monoceratoclinea Wheeler 1935 SM13, Z01
    |          |--D. indrapurensis SM13
    |          `--D. (Diceratoclinea Wheeler 1935) SM13, TB85
    |               |--D. (*D.) scabridus Roger 1862 TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--D. (D.) angusticornis Clark 1930 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) angusticornis TB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) inferus Shattuck & Marsden 2013 SM13
    |               |--D. (D.) niger Crawley 1922 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon nigra TB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) rufotibialis Clark 1930 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon rufotibialis TB85]
    |               `--D. (D.) ypsilon Forel 1902 SM13, TB85
    `--+--+--Technomyrmex BS06
       |  `--+--Tapinoma BS06
       |     `--Liometopum Mayr 1861 BS06, B03 [incl. Ctenobethylus Brues 1939 Z01]
       |          |--*L. microcephalum (Panzer 1798) [=Formica microcephala] Z01
       |          |--L. apiculatum BS06
       |          |--L. lindgreeni Forel 1902 B03
       |          |--L. occidentale BS06
       |          |    |--L. o. occidentale BM76
       |          |    `--L. o. luctuosum BM76
       |          `--L. sinense Wheeler 1921 Z01
       `--+--Leptomyrmex BS06
          `--+--+--Forelius pruinosus BS06 [=Iridomyrmex pruinosus WW90]
             |  |    |--F. p. pruinosus BM76
             |  |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ p. analis BM76
             |  `--Dorymyrmex BS06
             |       |--D. bicolor BS06 [=Conomyrma bicolor WW90, D. pyramicus bicolor WW90]
             |       `--D. pyramicus BM76
             `--+--Azteca BS06
                |    |--A. constructor S10
                |    |--A. ovaticeps BS06
                |    |--A. trigona TRZ10
                |    `--A. xanthochroa WI-B09
                `--+--Linepithema humile (Mayr 1868) BS06, W08
                   `--+--Papyrius nitidus BS06
                      `--+--Anonychomyrma BS06
                         |    |--A. gilberti BS06
                         |    |--A. itinerans H09
                         |    |    |--A. i. itinerans H09
                         |    |    `--A. i. perthensis H09
                         |    `--A. nitidiceps H09
                         `--+--Philidris Shattuck 1992 BS06, Z01
                            |    |--*P. cordata (Smith 1859) Z01 [=Formica cordata Z01, Iridomyrmex cordatus TB85]
                            |    |    |--P. c. cordata TB85
                            |    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex cordatus’ stewartii Forel 1893 TB85
                            |    `--P. notiala Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
                            `--Turneria Forel 1895 BS06, TB85
                                 |--*T. bidentata Forel 1895 TB85
                                 |--T. dahlii Z01
                                 |--T. frenchi Forel 1911 TB85
                                 `--T. pacifica Z01

Dolichoderinae incertae sedis:
  Iridomyrmex H09
  Eotapinoma GE05
    |--E. macalpini GE05
    `--E. zherichinius GE05
  Ochetellus Shattuck 1992 FT08
    |--*O. glaber (Mayr 1862) [=Hypoclinea glabra, Iridomyrmex glaber; incl. I. itoi Forel 1900] Z01
    |    |--O. g. glaber TB85
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ g. clarithorax Forel 1902 TB85
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ g. sommeri For. 1902 [incl. I. glaber sommeri var. janthina Emery 1914] E14
    |--O. flavipes H09
    `--O. punctatissimus H09
  Froggattella Forel 1902 TB85
    |--*F. kirbii (Lowne 1865) [=Acantholepis kirbii, Dolichoderus kirbyi Dalla Torre 1893] TB85
    |    |--F. k. kirbii TB85
    |    |--F. k. bispinosa Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--F. k. ianthina Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    |--F. k. laticeps Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    |--F. k. lutescens Wheeler 1936 TB85
    |    `--F. k. nigripes Wheeler 1936 TB85
    `--F. latispina Wheeler 1936 TB85
  Arnoldius H09
    |--A. flavus H09
    `--A. scissor H09
  Nebothriomyrmex majeri H09
  Doleromyrma Forel 1907 H09, TB85
    |--*D. darwiniana (Forel 1907) [=Tapinoma (*Doleromyrma) darwinianum, Iridomyrmex darwinianus] TB85
    |    |--D. d. darwiniana H09
    |    |--D. d. fida (Forel 1907) H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex darwinianus’ leae Forel 1913 TB85
    `--D. rottnestensis (Wheeler 1934) H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
  Conomyrma WW90
    |--C. flavopectus [=Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavopectus] WW90
    `--C. insana WW90
  Bothriomyrmex TB85

Doleromyrma darwiniana fida (Forel 1907) H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Doleromyrma) darwinianum fida TB85, Iridomyrmex darwinianus fida TB85]

Doleromyrma rottnestensis (Wheeler 1934) H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Micromyrma) rottnestense TB85, T. minutum rottnestense H09]

Dolichoderus Lund 1831 BS06, Z01 [incl. Diabolus Karavajew 1926 Z01, Irenae Donisthorpe 1938 Z01, Karavajewella Donisthorpe 1944 Z01, Monacis Roger 1862 Z01]

Dolichoderus sibiricus Emery 1889 [=D. quadripunctatus sibiricus; incl. D. (Hypoclinea) abietis Kono & Sugihara 1939, D. (H.) sinensis var. atriceps Wheeler 1928, D. quadripunctatus japonicus Yoshioka 1939, D. (H.) sinensis Wheeler 1921, D. (H.) quadripunctatus yoshiokae Wheeler 1933] Z01

Dolichoderus taprobanae (Smith 1858) B03 [=Formica taprobanae B03, Hypoclinea taprobanae H02; incl. H. gracilipes Mayr 1878 B03, Dolichoderus taprobanae var. gracilipes B03, H. gracilis Motschoulsky 1863 Z01, Formica ingruens Walker 1859 Z01, Dolichoderus semirufus André 1887 B03]

Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith 1860) Z01 [=Tapinoma thoracica E89b; incl. Hypoclinea bituberculatus Mayr 1862 Z01, Dolichoderus bituberculatus B03, Tapinoma gibba E89b]

Dolichoderus (Acanthoclinea) clarki Wheeler 1935 SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) tristis Clark 1930 non D. (Monacis) tristis Mann 1916 TB85]

Dolichoderus (*Diceratoclinea) scabridus Roger 1862 TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) scabridus TB85; incl. Polyrhachis foveolatus Lowne 1865 TB85, D. (H.) scabridus ruficornis Santschi 1916 SM13, TB85]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89a] Emery, C. 1889a. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 439–443.

[E89b] Emery, C. 1889b. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[SM13] Shattuck, S. O., & S. Marsden. 2013. Australian species of the ant genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3716 (2): 101–143.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S10] Swann, J. E. 2010. Milichiidae (milichiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1125–1136. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flies or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W08] Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Last updated: 25 May 2020.

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