Diplopoda

Pincushion millipede Polyxenus lagurus, copyright Sarefo.


Belongs within: Myriapoda.
Contains: Leptodesmidae, Vanhoeffeniidae, Helminthomorpha, Pentazonia.

The Diplopoda, millipedes, are a diverse group of mostly detritivorous terrestrial arthropods with undifferentiated body segments mostly bearing two pairs of legs each. The Polyxenida, pincushion millipedes, are small soft-bodied animals with an extensive covering of tufts of barbed bristles.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Antennae simple, eight-segmented; whole-limb mandibles present; embryonic maxillary appendages coalesced into gnathochilarium; trunk segments (diplosomites) undifferentiated, derived from fusion of two embryonic somites, generally bearing two pairs of legs; segmentation teloblastic, with proliferation zone located just anterior to last segment; trachea diffusely branched, anastomosing, opening through stigmata at lateral ends of sterna.

<==Diplopoda
    |--Polyxenida [Ancyrotricha, Polyxenida, Polyxenoidea, Pselaphognatha, Schizocephala] W05
    |    |--Polyxenoidea CND-J08
    |    |    |  i. s.: Alloproctoides dawydoffi (Attems 1938) CND-J08
    |    |    |--Polyxenidae GEW01
    |    |    |    |--Polyxeninae CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Polyxenus Latreille 1802-1803 [=Pollyxenus] CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    |--P. albus Pocock 1894 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    |--P. fasciculatus RS10
    |    |    |    |    |    `--P. lagurus CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Propolyxenus Silvestri 1948 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    `--Typhloxenus Condé 1954 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |--Monographinae CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Monographis Attems 1907 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    `--M. pauliani Condé & Jacquemin 1962 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Unixenus broelemanni (Condé & Jacquemin 1962) CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Anopsxenus CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    `--Miopsxenus CND-J08
    |    |    |    |         |--M. mootyi Condé 1951 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |         `--M. schubarti Jacquemin & Condé 1964 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |--Macroxeninae CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Macroxenus Brolemann 1917 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    `--*M. rubromarginatus (Lucas 1946) CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Macroxenodes Silvestri 1948 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    |--*M. meinerti (Silvestri 1898) CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    `--M. bartschi (Chamberlin 1922) CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |--Chilexenus Silvestri 1948 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    |    `--*C. rosendinus (Silvestri 1903) CND-J08
    |    |    |    |    `--Afraustraloxenodes Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin 2003 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |         |--*A. namibiensis Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin 2003 CND-J08
    |    |    |    |         `--A. hulleyi Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin 2003 CND-J08
    |    |    |    `--Hypogexenus Silvestri 1903 [Hypogexenidae, Hypogexeninae] CND-J08]
    |    |    |         `--*H. pusillus Silvestri 1903 CND-J08
    |    |    `--Lophoproctidae CND-J08
    |    |         |--Trichoproctus CND-J08
    |    |         |--Lophoproctus CND-J08
    |    |         |    |--L. jeanneli (Brölemann 1910) CND-J08
    |    |         |    `--L. pagesi Condé 1981 CND-J08
    |    |         `--Ancistroxenus Schubart 1947 CND-J08
    |    `--Synxenidae [Synxenoidea] CND-J08
    |         |--Phryssonotus Scudder 1885 [=Lophonotus Menge 1854 (preoc.); incl. Synxenus Silvestri 1900] CND-J08
    |         |    |--*P. orientalis (Silvestri 1900) [=Synxenus orientalis] CND-J08
    |         |    |--P. capensis (Silvestri 1923) CND-J08
    |         |    |--P. chilensis (Silvestri 1948) CND-J08
    |         |    |--P. cubanus (Silvestri 1948) CND-J08
    |         |    |--P. novaehollandiae (Silvestri 1923) CND-J08
    |         |    `--P. platycephalus (Lucas 1846) [=Polyxenus platycephalus] CND-J08
    |         `--Condexenus Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin 2006 CND-J08
    `--+--Arthropleuridea W05
       |    |--Arthropleura Z02 [Arthropleurida W05]
       |    |--Microdecemplicida W05
       |    `--Eoarthropleurida W05
       `--Chilognatha W05
            |--Helminthomorpha W05
            `--+--Pentazonia W05
               `--Zosterogrammidae [Zosterogrammida] W05
                    |--Zosterogrammus Wilson 2005 W05
                    |    `--*Z. stichostethus Wilson 2005 W05
                    |--Casiogrammus Wilson 2005 W05
                    |    `--*C. ichthyeros Wilson 2005 W05
                    `--Purkynia Fritsch 1899 W05
                         `--*P. lata Fritsch 1899 W05

Diplopoda incertae sedis:
  Schopfia Janssen 1940 LH02
    `--S. calceola LH02
  Leptodesmidae K55
  Vanhoeffeniidae K55
  Oniscodesmidae K55
    |--*Oncodesmus granosus (Gervais & Goudot 1844) K54a
    |--Cyrtodesmus tomentosus Silvestri 1898 K55
    |--Cyliocyrtus Cook 1898 [Oniscodesminae] K55
    |    `--C. ramosus Kraus 1955 K55
    `--Oncodesmoides Kraus 1954 K54a
         |--*O. rectus Kraus 1954 K54a
         `--O. uncinatus Kraus 1954 K54a
  Cryptodesmidae K54b
    |--Tidopterus K54b
    |--Corypherepsis K54b
    `--Apomus (Parapomus Kraus 1954) K54b
         `--A. (*P.) zilchi Kraus 1954 K54b
  ‘Curimagua’ Hoffmann 1982 non Forster & Platnick 1977 KA-Z11
  Brachydesmus superus KAA-W00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CND-J08] Condé, B. & M. Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin. 2008. Classification actuelle des diplopodes pénicillates (myriapodes) avec nouvelles définitions des taxa. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 133 (4): 291–302.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B. & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[LH02] Lemay, S., & J. T. Hannibal. 2002. Trigonocarpus excrescens Janssen, 1940, a supposed seed from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois, is a milliped (Diplopoda: Euphoberiidae). Kirtlandia 53: 37–40.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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