Golden guinea vine Hibbertia scandens, copyright Casliber.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.

The Dilleniaceae are a pantropical and warm-temperate group of flowering plants, mostly trees and shrubs. Members of the family have toothed leaves with often strong and parallel secondary veins extending into the teeth (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Hibbertia, guinea flowers, is a genus of shrubs and climbers found in Australasia and Madagascar whose vernacular name refers to their production of radial yellow flowers.

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Trees and shrubs (occasionally lianes or perennial herbs); distinctive flavonols, myricetin, ellagic acid present; hairs more or less stellate and sclerified; primary stem with continuous vascular cylinder; cork cambium deep-seated; true tracheids present; raphides present, also common in wood; rays often broad; epidermis silicified; branching from previous flush; hairs unicellular; leaves spiral, lamina vernation conduplicate, surface often scabrid, margins toothed, secondary veins parallel, proceeding straight to the teeth, tertiary venation more or less scalariform, fine veins areolate, teeth with clear glandular expanded apex, base rather broad, stipules absent, long petiolar flanges usually present; pedicels articulated; flowers often yellow; sepals (3-)5(-20), large, petals (2-)5, usually crumpled in bud; androecium often asymmetric, anthers (2-)many, from a ring primordium or fasciculate, fascicles opposite sepals, supplied by trunk bundles, connective often well-developed, anthers basifixed, exodermis well developed; nectary absent; gynoecium with (1-3)4-8[-20] carpels, styluli long, stigmas capitate to punctate; ovules 1-many/carpel, apotropous, often campylotropous, micropyle zigzag or exostomal, outer integument 2(-3) cells across, inner integument 2-6 cells across, parietal tissue 6-14 cells across, nucellar cap ca. 2 cells across, chalazal area massive; calyx persistent in fruit; aril present, funicular, often laciniate, exotesta often fleshy, exotegmen with spiral or annular thickenings, endotegmen tanniniferous; zygote with distinctive wall and protrusions into the endosperm ["mantle"]; n = 4, 5, 8-10, 12, 13; germination phanerocotylar.

<==Dilleniaceae [Dilleniales, Dilleniinae]
    |--Pachynema H03
    |--Acrotrema H03
    |--Davilla YY22
    |--Burtonia Salisbury 1807 FT93
    |--Tetracera [Delimoideae, Tetraceroideae] YY22
    |--Wormia alata C16
    |--Dillenites microdentatus (Hollick) Berry 1916 CBH93
    |--Curatella americana CBH93, V-MR-M03
    |--Adrastaea salicifolia [=Hibbertia salicifolia] H90
    |--Dillenia [Dillenioideae] CD07
    |    |--D. alata R96
    |    |--D. excelsa P88
    |    |--D. grandifolia K03
    |    |--D. indica Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |    |--D. pentagyna S02
    |    `--D. suffruticosa P88
    `--Hibbertia MM09
         |--H. acerosa GK00
         |--H. acicularis H08
         |--H. acuminata H90
         |--H. amplexicaulis GK00
         |--H. aspera H90
         |--H. auriculiflora LK14
         |    |--H. a. ssp. auriculiflora LK14
         |    `--H. a. ssp. minor LK14
         |--H. axillibarba G04b
         |--H. billardieri B96
         |    |--H. b. var. billardieri B96
         |    `--H. b. var. obovata B96
         |--H. bracteata H90
         |--H. calycina H90
         |--H. carinata G04b
         |--H. ciliolata LK14
         |--H. circumdans H90
         |--H. cistiflora H90
         |--H. cistoidea H90
         |--H. commutata OS04
         |--H. covenyana H90
         |--H. cuneiformis JK80
         |--H. cunninghamii RL05
         |--H. dentata H87
         |--H. diffusa C08
         |    |--H. d. var. diffusa B96
         |    `--H. d. var. dilatata B96
         |--H. echiifolia LK14
         |--H. elata H90
         |--H. empetrifolia H90
         |--H. enervia LK00
         |--H. exasperata G04b
         |--H. fasciculata MB08
         |    |--H. f. var. fasciculata MB08
         |    `--H. f. var. clavata Maiden & Betche 1908 MB08
         |--H. fractiflexa LK14
         |    |--H. f. ssp. fractiflexa LK14
         |    `--H. f. ssp. filicaulis LK14
         |--H. glaberrima EF04
         |--H. glomerata GK00
         |--H. gracilipes G04b
         |--H. hemignosta OS04
         |--H. hermanniifolia H90
         |--H. hexandra H90
         |--H. hooglandii LK14
         |--H. huegelii RL05
         |--H. kaputarensis H90
         |--H. ledifolia LK14
         |--H. lepidocalyx G04b
         |--H. lepidota LK14
         |--H. linearis M65
         |--H. marginata H90
         |--H. microphylla OS04
         |--H. monogyna H90
         |--H. nitida H90
         |--H. oblongata LK14
         |    |--H. o. ssp. oblongata LK14
         |    `--H. o. ssp. brevifolia LK14
         |--H. obtusifolia C70 [=H. linearis var. obtusifolia B96]
         |--H. orientalis LK14
         |--H. pedunculata H90
         |--H. perfoliata P05
         |--H. polystachya GK00
         |--H. procumbens H90
         |--H. pulchra GK00
         |--H. pungens G04b
         |--H. racemosa GK00
         |--H. recurvifolia OS04
         |--H. riparia H90
         |--H. rostellata G04b
         |--H. rufa H90
         |--H. rupicola OS04
         |--H. saligna H90
         |--H. scandens MM09
         |--H. sericea H90
         |--H. serpyllifolia C08
         |--H. silvestris GK00
         |--H. spicata G04a
         |--H. stellaris JK80
         |--H. stricta MM09
         |--H. subvaginata GK00
         |--H. vaginata RL05
         |--H. vestita C08
         |--H. villosa H90
         |--H. virgata H90
         `--H. volubilis H87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MB08] Maiden, J. H., & E. Betche. 1908. Notes from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. No. 13. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 304–319.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129–132.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds—a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537–543.

[V-MR-M03] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., & C. Rodríguez-Manzanilla. 2003. Descripción de Trinella vigirima sp. n. (Opiliones: Agoristenidae) de Venezuela. Entomotropica 18 (3): 177–182.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 29 March 2022.

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