Dilleniaceae

Golden guinea vine Hibbertia scandens, copyright Casliber.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.

The Dilleniaceae is a pantropical and warm-temperate group of flowering plants, mostly trees and shrubs. Members of the family have toothed leaves with often strong and parallel secondary veins extending into the teeth (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Trees and shrubs (occasionally lianes or perennial herbs); distinctive flavonols, myricetin, ellagic acid present; hairs more or less stellate and sclerified; primary stem with continuous vascular cylinder; cork cambium deep-seated; true tracheids present; raphides present, also common in wood; rays often broad; epidermis silicified; branching from previous flush; hairs unicellular; leaves spiral, lamina vernation conduplicate, surface often scabrid, margins toothed, secondary veins parallel, proceeding straight to the teeth, tertiary venation more or less scalariform, fine veins areolate, teeth with clear glandular expanded apex, base rather broad, stipules absent, long petiolar flanges usually present; pedicels articulated; flowers often yellow; sepals (3-)5(-20), large, petals (2-)5, usually crumpled in bud; androecium often asymmetric, anthers (2-)many, from a ring primordium or fasciculate, fascicles opposite sepals, supplied by trunk bundles, connective often well-developed, anthers basifixed, exodermis well developed; nectary absent; gynoecium with (1-3)4-8[-20] carpels, styluli long, stigmas capitate to punctate; ovules 1-many/carpel, apotropous, often campylotropous, micropyle zigzag or exostomal, outer integument 2(-3) cells across, inner integument 2-6 cells across, parietal tissue 6-14 cells across, nucellar cap ca. 2 cells across, chalazal area massive; calyx persistent in fruit; aril present, funicular, often laciniate, exotesta often fleshy, exotegmen with spiral or annular thickenings, endotegmen tanniniferous; zygote with distinctive wall and protrusions into the endosperm ["mantle"]; n = 4, 5, 8-10, 12, 13; germination phanerocotylar.

<==Dilleniaceae [Dilleniinae]
    |--Pachynema H03
    |--Acrotrema H03
    |--Davilla YY22
    |--Burtonia Salisbury 1807 FT93
    |--Tetracera [Delimoideae, Tetraceroideae] YY22
    |--Dillenia [Dillenioideae] CD07
    |    |--D. alata R96
    |    |--D. excelsa P88
    |    |--D. grandifolia K03
    |    |--D. indica Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |    |--D. pentagyna S02
    |    `--D. suffruticosa P88
    `--Hibbertia MM09
         |--H. acerosa GK00
         |--H. amplexicaulis GK00
         |--H. axillibarba G04b
         |--H. carinata G04b
         |--H. commutata OS04
         |--H. cuneiformis JK80
         |--H. cunninghamii RL05
         |--H. enervia LK00
         |--H. exasperata G04b
         |--H. glaberrima EF04
         |--H. glomerata GK00
         |--H. gracilipes G04b
         |--H. hemignosta OS04
         |--H. huegelii RL05
         |--H. lepidocalyx G04b
         |--H. linearis M65
         |--H. microphylla OS04
         |--H. nitia JK80
         |--H. perfoliata P05
         |--H. polystachya GK00
         |--H. pulchra GK00
         |--H. pungens G04b
         |--H. racemosa GK00
         |--H. recurvifolia OS04
         |--H. rostellata G04b
         |--H. rupicola OS04
         |--H. scandens MM09
         |--H. silvestris GK00
         |--H. spicata G04a
         |--H. stellaris GK00
         |--H. stricta MM09
         |--H. subvaginata GK00
         `--H. vaginata RL05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LK00] Lowrie, A. & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293-302.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129-132.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds—a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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