Myriapoda

House centipede Scutigera coleoptrata, copyright Bruce Marlin.


Belongs within: Euarthropoda.
Contains: Diplopoda, Symphyla, Pauropoda, Scolopendromorpha, Geophilomorpha, Lithobiidae.

The Myriapoda are a clade of terrestrial arthropods with often elongate bodies composed of numerous, mostly undifferentiated segments. Respiration is by means of tracheae, and Malpighian tubules are present (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). They include the centipedes (Chilopoda), members of which have the first trunk segment modified into forcipules, with the appendages forming a pincer-like structure with poison glands opening near the tips (Mundel 1990). The remaining myriapods are united in a clade Progoneata supported the presence of gonopores near the front of the body, behind the second body segment.

Myriapoda
    |  i. s.: Thyropygus NS03
    |         Atractosoma hyalops Latzel 1889 L89
    |         Arthronomalus E12
    |           |--A. brevicornis Newport 1849 E12
    |           |--A. marginatus Newport 1849 E12
    |           |--A. punctatus Newport 1849 E12
    |           `--A. puncticeps Newport 1849 E12
    |         Antrokoreana gracilipes WS10
    |--Progoneata [Dignatha] RS10
    |    |--Diplopoda AC17
    |    `--+--Arthropleuridea W05
    |       |    |--Arthropleura AC17 [Arthropleurida W05]
    |       |    |--Microdecemplicida W05
    |       |    `--Eoarthropleurida W05
    |       `--+--Symphyla AC17
    |          `--Pauropoda AC17
    `--Chilopoda [Anamorpha, Syngnatha] RS10
         |  i. s.: Eucratonyx hamatus A27
         |         Cupipes impressus A27
         |           |--C. i. impressus A27
         |           `--C. i. armatus A27
         |         Alipes grandidieri SK14
         |--Scutigeromorpha [Notostigmophora] BFM03
         |    |--Pselliodes K55 [Pselliodidae M90, Pselliodinae]
         |    |    `--P. nigrovittata (Meinert 1886) (see below for synonymy) K55
         |    `--Scutigeridae M90
         |         |--Allothereua GEW01
         |         |--Thereuopoda clunifera (Wood 1862) H04
         |         |--Scutigera M90
         |         |    |--S. coleoptrata M90
         |         |    |--S. complanata A01
         |         |    |--S. hispida A01
         |         |    `--S. linceci (Wood 1867) [=Cermatia linceci; incl. S. nubila Chamberlin 1922] K54
         |         `--Pilbarascutigera incola (Verhoeff 1925) T13
         `--Pleurostigmophora RS10
              |--+--Craterostigmus RS10 [Craterostigmomorpha BFM03]
              |  |    |--C. crabilli Edgecombe & Giribet 2008 GFB14
              |  |    `--C. tasmanianus RS10
              |  `--+--Devonobiomorpha BFM03
              |     `--Epimorpha M90
              |          |--Scolopendromorpha BFM03
              |          `--Geophilomorpha BFM03
              `--Lithobiomorpha BFM03
                   |--Lithobiidae BFM03
                   |--Anopsobius GFB14 [Anopsobiidae M90]
                   |    `--A. neozelanicus Silvestri 1909 GFB14
                   |--Gosibiidae M90
                   |--Bothropolys [Ethropolidae] M90
                   |--Pseudolithobius [Pseudolithobiidae] M90
                   |--Henicopidae M90
                   |    |--Zygethobius M90
                   |    `--Lamyctes M90
                   |         |--L. emarginatus M83
                   |         `--L. fulvicornis M90
                   `--Watobiidae M90
                        |--Malbius Chamberlin 1943 C62
                        |--Tropobius C62
                        `--Cruzobius C62
                             |--C. atoyacus Chamberlin 1942 C62
                             |--C. pococki Crabill 1962 C62
                             |--C. verus Chamberlin 1942 C62
                             `--C. viganus Chamberlin 1944 C62

Pselliodes nigrovittata (Meinert 1886) [=Scutigera nigrovittata; incl. P. colombiana Chamberlin 1921, Brasilophora trimarmorata Bücherl 1950] K55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC17] Aria, C., & J.-B. Caron. 2017. Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan. Nature 545: 89–92.

[A01] Attems, C. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[C62] Crabill, R. E., Jr. 1962. A new Cruzobius from Mexico (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Watobiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 133–136.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[GFB14] Giribet, G., R. Fernández & S. L. Boyer. 2014. On four poorly known harvestmen from New Zealand (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Eupnoi: Dyspnoi: Laniatores). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 41 (4): 223–233.

Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Haupt, J. 2004. A new species of whipscorpion from Laos (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 151–155.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 360–362.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M90] Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887–1889.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SK14] Sharma, P. P., S. T. Kaluziak, A. R. Pérez-Porro, V. L. González, G. Hormiga, W. C. Wheeler & G. Giribet. 2014. Phylogenomic interrogation of Arachnida reveals systemic conflicts in phylogenetic signal. Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (11): 2963–2984.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

Last updated: 5 November 2017.

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