Helminthomorpha

Reconstruction of Acantherpestes major from Scudder (1882).


Belongs within: Diplopoda.
Contains: Colobognatha, Eugnatha.

The Helminthomorpha is a clade of millipedes ancestrally characterised by the presence of more than 21 trunk segments in adults, though this has been subsequently reduced in some subclades. Crown-group helminthomorphs are also distinguished by the modification in males of at least one pair of legs on the seventh trunk segment into intromittent gonopods (Wilson 2005b).

<==Helminthomorpha [Proterandria] W05b
    |  i. s.: Siphoniulus Pocock 1894 [Siphoniulida, Siphoniulidae, Siphoniuloidea] SS03
    |           |--*S. albus Pocock 1894 SS03
    |           `--S. neotropicus Hoffman 1979 SS03
    |         Hexecontasoma Hannibal 2000 [Hexecontasomatidae] H00
    |           `--*H. carinatum Hannibal 2000 H00
    |--+--Pleurojulus Fritsch 1899 [Pleurojulida] W05b
    |  `--+--Colobognatha WA04
    |     `--Eugnatha WA04
    `--Archipolypoda [Macrosterni, Palaeocoxopleura] WA04
         |  i. s.: Anaxeodesmus Wilson 2005 W05a
         |           `--*A. diambonotus Wilson 2005 W05a
         |         Palaeodesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         |           `--*P. tuberculata (Brade-Birks 1923) [=Kampecaris tuberculata] WA04
         |         Albadesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         |           `--*A. almondi Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         |         Pneumodesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         |           `--*P. newmani Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         |         Archiulus [Archiulidae] WA04
         |         Anthracodesmus Peach 1899 WA04
         |           `--*A. macconochiei Peach 1899 WA04
         |         Pattonia WA04
         |--+--Archidesmus Peach 1882 [Archidesmida, Archidesmidae] WA04
         |  |    `--*A. macnicoli Peach 1882 WA04
         |  `--Cowiedesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004 [Cowiedesmida, Cowiedesmidae] WA04
         |       `--C. eroticopodus Wilson & Anderson 2004 WA04
         `--Euphoberiidae [Euphoberiida] WA04
              |--Euphoberia Meek & Worthen 1868 WA04
              |    `--E. horrida WA04
              |--Acantherpestes Meek & Worthen 1868 WA04
              |    |--A. major K-P83
              |    `--A. vicinus K-P83
              `--Myriacantherpestes Burke 1979 WA04
                   |--M. bradebirski Burke 1979 LH02
                   |--M. clarkorum (Burke 1973) LH02
                   |--M. excrescens (Janssen 1940) [=Trigonocarpus excrescens] LH02
                   |--M. ferox (Salter 1863) LH02
                   |--M. hystricosus (Scudder 1890) LH02
                   `--M. inequalis (Scudder 1890) LH02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19–35.

[K-P83] Kukalov√°-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[LH02] Lemay, S., & J. T. Hannibal. 2002. Trigonocarpus excrescens Janssen, 1940, a supposed seed from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois, is a milliped (Diplopoda: Euphoberiidae). Kirtlandia 53: 37–40.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

[W05a] Wilson, H. M. 2005a. A new genus of archipolypodan millipede from the Coseley Lagerst√§tte, Upper Carboniferous, UK. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1097–1100.

[W05b] Wilson, H. M. 2005b. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

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