Lithobius forficatus, copyright Shane.

Belongs within: Myriapoda.

The Lithobiidae are a group of centipedes widespread in temperate regions. Some authors have restricted this family to taxa with prominent lateral teeth on the claws, while others have recognised this group in a broader sense (Mundel 1990). The species Lithobius forficatus is the most commonly found centipede species in Europe.

Characters (from Mundel 1990): Ocelli generally more than four in each ocular area (a few forms eyeless). Fifteen tergites and sternites present. Coxal pores present on more than the last two pairs of coxae in adults. True spurs present on legs.

    |--Nampabius C62
    |--Sotimpius Chamberlin 1912 [incl. Labrobius Chamberlin 1915] K54
    |    |--S. costaricensis K54
    |    |--S. decodontus (Pocock 1895) [=Lithobius decodontus] K54
    |    |--S. macrocerus K54
    |    |--S. multigranosus Kraus 1954 K54
    |    |--S. salvadorensis Kraus 1954 K54
    |    |--S. vulcani K54
    |    `--S. zilchi Kraus 1954 K54
    `--Lithobius BFM03
         |--L. aeruginosus [incl. L. aeruginosus var. mongolicus Attems 1901] A01
         |--L. captivus Stuxberg 1876 A01
         |--L. crassipes K09
         |--L. decessus Attems 1901 A01
         |--L. elongatus Newport 1849 E12
         |--L. forficatus (Linnaeus 1758) BFM03
         |--L. grossipes [incl. L. grossipes var. debilis Latzel 1889] L89
         |--L. lucasi Newport 1849 E12
         |--L. melanops K09
         |--L. monilicornis Newport 1849 E12
         |--L. obscurus GEW01
         |--L. rugosus A01
         |--L. variegatus GEW01
         `--L. vulgaris CM07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C62] Crabill, R. E., Jr. 1962. A new Cruzobius from Mexico (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Watobiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 133–136.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 360–362.

Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Last updated: 5 November 2017.

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