Wintercreeper Euonymus fortunei, photographed by SB_Johnny.

Belongs within: Celastrales.

The Celastraceae are a primarily pantropical family of trees, shrubs and lianas. Synapomorphies of the family as recognised here (including Hippocrateoideae and Brexia) are cymose inflorescences, dorsifixed anthers and connate styles (Simmons & Hedin 1999). Members of the genera Euonymus and Celastrus have been widely grown as ornamentals. Brexia madagascarensis is a small tree with entire or spinose-dentate leaves found in Madagascar and coastal east Africa whose phylogenetic position has been contentious in the past, with various authors placing it close to Saxifragales or Hydrangeales.

    |--+--Maytenus DL07
    |  |    |--M. cupularis Ding Hou 1962 JW03
    |  |    |--M. heterophylla K02
    |  |    |--M. hotteana J87
    |  |    |--M. magellanica D03
    |  |    |--M. mossambicensis K02
    |  |    `--M. senegalensis GC05
    |  `--+--Brexia [Brexiaceae, Brexiales] DL07
    |     |    `--B. madagascarensis WM09
    |     `--Elaeodendron [Elaeodendroideae, Hippocrateae, Hippocrateoideae] DL07
    |          |--E. buchananii TO95
    |          |--E. carnosum Turcz. 1863 (n. d.) A61
    |          |--E. novae-zelandiae Turcz. 1863 (n. d.) A61
    |          `--E. punctulatum Turcz. 1863 (n. d.) A61
    `--+--Celastrus [Celastroideae] DL07
       |    |--C. minutus HL08
       |    |--C. orbiculatus TE00
       |    |--C. paniculatus SR07
       |    `--C. praeeuropaeus Ettingshausen 1886 F71
       `--Euonymus DL07
            |--E. acuminifolius H03
            |--E. alatus (Thunberg) Siebold 1830 CD07
            |--E. americana WM09
            |--E. bengtuenensis H03
            |--E. europaeus [=Evonymus (l. c.) europaeus] C55
            |--E. fortunei GM96
            |--E. japonicus H03
            |--E. javanicus H03
            |--E. phellomana H59
            |--E. radicans H59
            `--E. sieboldianus [incl. E. europaeus var. hamiltonianus] LO98

Celastraceae incertae sedis:
  Acanthothamnus T00
  Canotia T00
  Putterlickia verrucosa GS03
  Salacia forsteniana H03
  Menepetalum YY22
  Gyminda YY22
  Lauridia YY22
  Peripterygia YY22
  Tetrasiphon YY22
  Cassine aethiopica K02
  Gymnosporia JW03
    |--*G. montana JW03
    |--G. curtisii King 1896 [=Maytenus curtisii (King) Ding Hou 1962] JW03
    |--G. diversifolia Maximowicz 1881 (see below for synonymy) JW03
    |--G. emarginata (Willdenow) Thwaites 1864 (see below for synonymy) JW03
    |--G. inermis Merrill & Perry 1939 JW03
    |--G. littoralis (Backer) Jordaan in Jordaan & van Wyk 2003 (see below for synonymy) JW03
    |--G. nitida Merrill 1914 [=Maytenus crassa Ding Hou 1962] JW03
    |--‘Maytenus’ rapakir Loesener 1936 JW03
    |--G. spinosa (Blanco) Merrill & Rolfe 1908 [=Cupania spinosa Blanco 1837] JW03
    |    |--G. s. var. spinosa JW03
    |    `--G. s. var. parva Merrill & Rolfe 1908 [incl. G. philippinensis Vidal 1885 (n. n.)] JW03
    `--G. vitiensis JW03
  Microtropis YY22
  Perrottetia YY22
  Plenckia YY22
  Phocea YY22
  Otherodendron YY22
  Rhacoma disticha YY22, D03
  Plagiopteron T00
  Tripterygioideae T00
  Psammomoya choretroides G04
  Pterocelastrus echinatus K02
  Torralbasia cuneifolia J87

Gymnosporia diversifolia Maximowicz 1881 [=Celastrus diversifolia (Maximowicz) Hemsley 1886, Maytenus diversifolia (Maximowicz) Ding Hou 1962; incl. C. buxifolia var. subdidymocarpus Kuntze 1891] JW03

Gymnosporia emarginata (Willdenow) Thwaites 1864 [=Celastrus emarginatus Willdenow 1798, Catha emarginata (Willdenow) Don 1832, Maytenus emarginata (Willdenow) Ramamurthy 1983] JW03

Gymnosporia littoralis (Backer) Jordaan in Jordaan & van Wyk 2003 [=G. montana var. littoralis Backer 1908] JW03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (6th ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[GS03] Groth, I., B. Schütze, T. Boettcher, C. B. Pullen, C. Rodriguez, E. Leistner & M. Goodfellow. 2003. Kitasatospora putterlickiae sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil, transfer of Streptomyces kifunensis to the genus Kitasatospora as Kitasatospora kifunensis comb. nov., and emended description of Streptomyces aureofaciens Duggar 1948. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2033-2040.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229-251.

[JW03] Jordaan, M., & A. E. van Wyk. 2003. Reinstatement of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): Implications for the Flora Malesiana region. Telopea 10 (1): 155-167.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1-220.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

Simmons, M. P., & J. P. Hedin. 1999. Relationships and morphological character change among genera of Celastraceae sensu lato (including Hippocrateaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86 (3): 723-757.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[TE00] Tibbetts, T. J. & F. W. Ewers. 2000. Root pressure and specific conductivity in temperate lianas: Exotic Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) vs. native Vitis riparia (Vitaceae). American Journal of Botany 87: 1272-1278.

[TO95] Tsujino, Y., J. I. J. Ogoche, H. Tazaki, T. Fujimori & K. Mori. 1995. Buchaninoside, a steroidal glycoside from Elaedendron buchananii. Phytochemistry 40: 753-756.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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