Culicidae

Culiseta inconspicua, copyright Richard C. Russell.


Belongs within: Culicomorpha.
Contains: Anopheles, Aedes, Sabethini, Culex, Uranotaenia, Tripteroides.

The Culicidae, mosquitoes, are a group of delicately built flies best known for the blood-sucking habits of adult females of the majority of species.

Characters (from Stone 1981): Slender delicate flies, 3-9 mm long. Legs slender. Proboscis slender, much longer than head; labrum, mandibles, laciniae, and hypopharynx greatly elongate, stylet-like, enclosed in sheath formed by labium; palpus of male usually about as long as proboscis, with terminal segments often bearing dense tufts of long setae. Wing veins and usually most of the body and legs clothed with scales.

<==Culicidae C09
    |  i. s.: Theobaldia annulata A71
    |         Opifex SS05
    |           |--O. (Nothoskusea) chathamicus [=Aedes (N.) chathamicus, Ochlerotatus (N.) chathamicus] SS05
    |           `--O. fuscus O81
    |         Mimomyia L91
    |           |--M. (Mimomyia) metallica L91
    |           `--M. (Etorleptiomyia) elegans L91
    |--Anophelinae [Anophelini] C09
    |    |--Anopheles C09
    |    |--Bironella C09
    |    `--Chagasia C09
    |         |--C. bathana (Dyar 1928) [=Anopheles (Chagasia) bathanus] SK56
    |         |--C. bonneae Root 1927 SK56
    |         `--C. rozeboomi Causey, Deane & Deane 1944 SK56
    `--+--Paleoculicis minutus GE05
       `--Culicinae S81
            |  i. s.: Aedeomyia C09
            |           |--A. catasticta Knab 1909 L91
            |           |--A. squamipennis C09
            |           `--A. venustipes L91
            |--Aedes C09
            |--Sabethini S81
            |--Toxorhynchites C09 [Toxorhynchitinae, Toxorhynchitini L91]
            |    |--T. amboensis WT11
            |    |--T. hypoptes C09
            |    |--T. moctezuma C09
            |    |--T. (Lynchiella) rutilus S81
            |    |--T. (Toxorhynchites) speciosus L91
            |    `--T. superbus C09
            `--Culicini S81
                 |--Culex S81
                 |--Uranotaenia S81
                 |--Tripteroides L91
                 |--Malaya genurostris CM70, L91
                 |--Orthopodomyia S81
                 |    |--O. phyllozoa C09
                 |    `--O. signifera S81
                 |--Mansonia S81
                 |    |--M. nigricans M46
                 |    |--M. richiardii KK91
                 |    |--M. titillans A71
                 |    `--M. (Mansonoides) uniformis (Theobald 1901) (see below for synonymy) L91
                 |--Haemagogus S81
                 |    |--H. (Longipalpifer) equinus S81
                 |    |--H. janthinomys C09
                 |    |--H. lucifer C09
                 |    `--H. mesodentatus C09
                 |--Deinocerites S81
                 |    |--D. cancer S81
                 |    |--D. costaricensis C09
                 |    |--D. epitedeus C09
                 |    `--D. pseudes C09
                 |--Psorophora S81
                 |    |--P. ciliata S81
                 |    |--P. columbiae S81
                 |    |--P. confinnis C09
                 |    `--P. ferox C09
                 |--Coquillettidia S81
                 |    |--C. (Coquillettidia) S81
                 |    |    |--C. (C.) crassipes L91
                 |    |    |--C. (C.) iracunda D05
                 |    |    |--C. (C.) linealis L91
                 |    |    |--C. (C.) perturbans S81
                 |    |    `--C. (C.) xanthogaster (Edwards 1924) L91
                 |    `--C. (Austromansonia) tenuipalpis D05
                 `--Culiseta S81
                      |  i. s.: C. annulata KK91
                      |         C. impatiens S81
                      |         C. incidens S81
                      |         C. inornata S81
                      |         C. particeps C09
                      |--C. (Climacura) tonnoiri D04
                      |--C. (Culicella) L91
                      |    |--C. (C.) atra Lee 1944 L91
                      |    `--C. (C.) inconspicua L91
                      `--C. (Neotheobaldia) hilli L91

Mansonia (Mansonoides) uniformis (Theobald 1901) [=Panoplites uniformis; incl. M. australiensis Giles 1902, M. marquesensis Dyar 1925, Panoplites reversus Theobald 1901, M. reversus] L91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C09] Chaverri, L. G. 2009. Culicidae (mosquitos, zancudos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 369–388. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[D04] Derraik, J. G. B. 2004. A survey of the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of the Auckland Zoological Park. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 51–55.

[D05] Derraik, J. G. B. 2005. Notes on some adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) records from West Auckland. Weta 29: 12–15.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KK91] Kamarinchev, B., T. Kovacheva, T. Christova, G. Georgieva & V. Zlatanova. 1991. Studies on mosquitoes and ticks as carriers of alpha-, flavi- and bunyaviruses. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 89–92. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L91] Liehne, P. F. S. 1991. An Atlas of the Mosquitoes of Western Australia. Health Department of Western Australia.

[M46] Michener, C. D. 1946. The taxonomy and bionomics of some Panamanian trombidiid mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 349–380.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[SS05] Snell, A. E., & P. J. Sirvid. 2005. Mosquitoes of the Chatham Islands: Notes on Opifex chathamicus (=Ochlerotatus chathamicus) (Dumbleton) (Diptera: Culicidae). Weta 29: 6–8.

[S81] Stone, A. 1981. Culicidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 341–350. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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